Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.
OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention. (+info)
Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth.
Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment. (+info)
Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population.
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Previous studies identified suboptimal nutritional status and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 as determinants of elevated tHcy. OBJECTIVE: We identified other nutritional factors associated with tHcy in 260 retired schoolteachers in the Baltimore metropolitan area. DESIGN: We performed observational analyses of baseline and 2-4-mo follow-up data collected in a study designed to test the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial of vitamin supplements by mail. The study population consisted of 151 women and 109 men with a median age of 64 y. At baseline, each participant completed a food-frequency questionnaire. At follow-up, fasting serum tHcy was measured. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models, there was an independent, inverse dose-response relation between dietary protein and In tHcy (P = 0.002) and a positive, significant dose-response relation between coffee consumption and In tHcy (P for trend = 0.01). Other significant predictors of In tHcy were creatinine (positive; P = 0.0001) and prestudy use of supplemental B vitamins (inverse; P = 0.03). In stratified analyses restricted to persons receiving standard multivitamin therapy, the association of 1n tHcy with dietary protein and coffee persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that increased protein intake and decreased coffee consumption may reduce tHcy and potentially prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other disease outcomes. (+info)
Influence of dietary fat on the nutrient intake and growth of children from 1 to 5 y of age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project.
BACKGROUND: Excessive decreases in fat intake in young children have been linked with low intakes of energy and nutrients and possible growth failure. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated nutrient intakes and growth of healthy children with different fat intakes during the first 5 y of life. DESIGN: In the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP), 7-mo-old children were randomly assigned to an intervention aimed at reduced consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol (n = 540) or to a control group (n = 522). This analysis comprises data for children for whom > or = 6 of 8 possible 3-4-d food records were available (n = 730; 353 females). Children were divided according to fat intake pattern (percentage of energy) between the ages of 13 mo and 5 y into groups with continuously high fat intake (5% of children), increasing fat intake (5%), continuously low fat intake (5%), decreasing fat intake (5%), and average fat intake (80%). Children's energy and nutrient intakes and growth were then compared by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Fat intake at 13 mo of age was particularly low (21% of energy) in the increasing fat intake group and in the continuously low fat intake group (22% of energy at 13 mo; 26% of energy at 5 y). Growth of children in all 5 fat intake groups, however, was not significantly different throughout the study period. Intakes of vitamins and minerals, except of vitamin D, met recommended dietary allowances in all fat intake groups. CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes and growth were not significantly different in children whose fat intake patterns differed between 13 mo and 5 y of age. (+info)
Quality and safety evaluation of genetically engineered rice with soybean glycinin: analyses of the grain composition and digestibility of glycinin in transgenic rice.
The composition of nutritionally and physiologically important molecules in transgenic rice with the soybean glycinin gene was determined and compared with that of a non-transgenic control. Except for the levels of protein, amino acids and moisture, no marked differences were found between the two kinds of rice. The protein content of the transgenic rice was about 20% higher than the control (control, 6.5 g/100 g; transgenic, 8.0 g/100 g) with a concomitantly lower moisture content. This increased protein content mainly resulted from the increased glycinin expressed in the transgenic rice, and the protein was susceptible to gastric and intestinal digestion juices. In parallel with the increased protein content, some important amino acids lacking in quantity in normal rice were replenished. (+info)
Primary prevention of CHD: nine ways to reduce risk.
Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial. (+info)
Increases in 4-hydroxynonenal and hexanal in bone marrow of rats subjected to total body X-ray irradiation: association with antioxidant vitamins.
Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and its association with antioxidant vitamins in the bone marrow (BM), of rats subjected to total body irradiation (TBI) of X-rays at a dose of 3 Gy was investigated. The concentration of vitamin C in the BM decreased at 4 h, and reached about 2% of the control level at 24 h after irradiation. The concentration of vitamin E in the BM also decreased to 43% at 24 h. Corresponding to the decrease in vitamin E concentration, the concentration of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in the BM increased 2.5-fold at 24 h. Similarly, increases in the concentrations of hexanal and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were detected in the BM. In the plasma, these parameters of lipid peroxidation were unchanged up to 48 h, but were increased at 96 h after irradiation. Four days of vitamin E administration to rats (p.o. 460 mg/kg body weight) prior to the 3 Gy X-irradiation increased the vitamin E concentration in the BM to 1.3-fold the control level, but did not attenuate the increases in HNE and hexanal in the BM. The slight accumulation of vitamin E in the BM as a result of the vitamin E treatment may be partly related to this lack of vitamin E effect. (+info)
Demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors differentially explain variability in serum carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins: baseline results from the sentinel site of the Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study.
Biochemical measures of nutrients or other dietary constituents can be an important component of nutritional assessment and monitoring. However, accurate interpretation of the nutrient concentration is dependent on knowledge of the determinants of the body pool measured. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of serum carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in a large, community-based sample (n = 1042). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine effects of demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education), health-related behavior (exercise, sun exposure, smoking, alcohol consumption), and intake (diet, supplements) on serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and carotenoid concentrations. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, vitamin A intake, and alcohol consumption were found to be determinants of serum retinol concentration. Race/ethnicity, vitamin D intake, body mass index, smoking status, and sun exposure were determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Determinants of serum alpha-tocopherol were age, sex, race/ethnicity, alpha-tocopherol intake, serum cholesterol, percentage of energy from fat (inversely related), supplement use, and body mass index. Age, sex, phylloquinone intake, serum triglycerides, and supplement use were determinants of serum phylloquinone concentration. Primary determinants of serum carotenoids were age, sex, race/ethnicity, carotenoid intake, serum cholesterol, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and smoking status. Overall, the demographic, dietary, and other lifestyle factors explained little of the variability in serum concentrations of retinol (R2 = 0.20), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (R2 = 0.24), and the carotenoids (R2 = 0.15-0.26); only modest amounts of the variability in serum phylloquinone concentration (R2 = 0.40); and more substantial amounts of the variability in serum alpha-tocopherol concentration (R2 = 0.62). (+info)