Mutations in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency.
Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by defective carnitine transport. This disease presents early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia or later in life with skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. The gene for this condition maps to 5q31.2-32 and OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter, also maps to the same chromosomal region. Here we test the causative role of OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency by searching for mutations in this gene in affected patients. Fibroblasts from patients with primary carnitine deficiency lacked mediated carnitine transport. Transfection of patient's fibroblasts with the OCTN2 cDNA partially restored carnitine transport. Sequencing of the OCTN2 gene revealed different mutations in two unrelated patients. The first patient was homozygous (and both parents heterozygous) for a single base pair substitution converting the codon for Arg-282 to a STOP codon (R282X). The second patient was a compound heterozygote for a paternal 1-bp insertion producing a STOP codon (Y401X) and a maternal 1-bp deletion that produced a frameshift creating a subsequent STOP codon (458X). These mutations decreased the levels of mature OCTN2 mRNA and resulted in nonfunctional transporters, confirming that defects in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 are responsible for primary carnitine deficiency. (+info)
A survey of the current clinical practice of psychiatrists and accident and emergency specialists in the United Kingdom concerning vitamin supplementation for chronic alcohol misusers.
Although it is well known that B-vitamin deficiencies directly affecting the brain are common in alcohol misuse, no concise guidelines on the use of vitamin supplements in alcohol misusers currently exist in the UK. The purpose of this study was to assess current practice and opinion among UK physicians. Questionnaires were completed by a total of 427 physicians comprising Accident and Emergency (A&E) specialists and psychiatrists, with a response rate of 25%. The main findings were that vitamin deficiency was perceived as being uncommon amongst alcohol misusers (<25%) and there was no consensus as to which B vitamins are beneficial in treatment or the best method of administration of B-vitamin supplementation. The majority of psychiatrists favoured oral administration for prophylaxis against the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol misusers and parenteral therapy in patients with signs of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Whilst only just over half the A&E specialists expressed a preference, most favoured parenteral therapy in both cases. Most respondents did not currently have a unit policy/protocol on the management of vitamin supplementation in chronic alcohol misusers. Overall, the findings suggest that there is wide variation in current practice and highlight the need for guidelines in this area. (+info)
B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly.
Evidence of the importance of the B vitamins folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 for the well-being and normal function of the brain derives from data showing neurologic and psychologic dysfunction in vitamin deficiency states and in cases of congenital defects of one-carbon metabolism. The status of these vitamins is frequently inadequate in the elderly and recent studies have shown associations between loss of cognitive function or Alzheimer disease and inadequate B vitamin status. The question that arises is whether these B vitamin inadequacies contribute to such brain malfunctions or result from aging and disease. From a theoretical standpoint, these inadequacies could give rise to impairment of methylation reactions that are crucial to the health of brain tissue. In addition or perhaps instead, these inadequacies could result in hyperhomocysteinemia, a recently identified risk factor for occlusive vascular disease, stroke, and thrombosis, any of which may result in brain ischemia. Advances in the understanding of this putative relation between inadequate vitamin status and loss of cognitive function in the elderly are likely to be slow and may depend on the outcomes of both prospective studies and longitudinal studies in which nutritional intervention is provided before cognitive decline occurs. (+info)
Effect of physical activity on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 requirements.
Because exercise stresses metabolic pathways that depend on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6, the requirements for these vitamins may be increased in athletes and active individuals. Theoretically, exercise could increase the need for these micronutrients in several ways: through decreased absorption of the nutrients; by increased turnover, metabolism, or loss of the nutrients; through biochemical adaptation as a result of training that increases nutrient needs; by an increase in mitochondrial enzymes that require the nutrients; or through an increased need for the nutrients for tissue maintenance and repair. Biochemical evidence of deficiencies in some of these vitamins in active individuals has been reported, but studies examining these issues are limited and equivocal. On the basis of metabolic studies, the riboflavin status of young and older women who exercise moderately (2.5-5 h/wk) appears to be poorer in periods of exercise, dieting, and dieting plus exercise than during control periods. Exercise also increases the loss of vitamin B-6 as 4-pyridoxic acid. These losses are small and concomitant decreases in blood vitamin B-6 measures have not been documented. There are no metabolic studies that have compared thiamine status in active and sedentary persons. Exercise appears to decrease nutrient status even further in active individuals with preexisting marginal vitamin intakes or marginal body stores. Thus, active individuals who restrict their energy intake or make poor dietary choices are at greatest risk for poor thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 status. (+info)
Effects of protein and vitamin B deficiency on blood parameters and myenteric neurons of the colon of rats.
The aims of this work were to evaluate the effects of the deficient ingestion of protein and vitamin B on the biochemical and hematologic parameters and on the NADH- and NADPH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons. The control animals (n=10) received commercial chow and the experimental rats (n=10) received chow with protein level reduced to 8% during 120 days. At the time of killing blood was collected for assessment of the blood and hematologic parameters and the ascending colon for quantitative analysis of the neurons of the myenteric plexus. It was observed that the reduction of the protein level to 8% coupled to the reduction of the levels of vitamin B in adult rats neither led to qualitative or quantitative changes on red or white blood cells, nor decreased globulin levels, induced the formation of edema or gave rise to clinical signs typical of protein or vitamin B deficiency. On the other hand, the experimental protocol led to less weight gain, change on the body composition with fat deposition; decrease of the values of serum total protein and albumin; reduction of the area of colon and density of nitrergic and NADH-diaphorase myenteric neurons inferior to the expected. (+info)
Effects of fatty liver induced by niacin-free diet with orotic acid on the metabolism of tryptophan to niacin in rats.
The effects of dietary orotic acid on the metabolism of tryptophan to niacin in weaning rats was investigated. The rats were fed with a niacin-free, 20% casein diet containing 0% (control diet) or 1% orotic acid diet (test diet) for 29 d. Retardation of growth, development of fatty liver, and enlargement of liver were observed in the test group in comparison with the control group. The concentrations of NAD and NADP in liver significantly decreased, while these in blood did not decrease compared to the control group. The formation of the upper metabolites of tryptophan to niacin such as anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid were not affected, but the quinolinic acid and beyond, such as nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, were significantly reduced by the administration of orotic acid. Therefore, the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin significantly decreased in the test group in comparison with the control group. (+info)
Preconception homocysteine and B vitamin status and birth outcomes in Chinese women.
BACKGROUND: The associations between homocysteine, B vitamin status, and pregnancy outcomes have not been examined prospectively. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the associations of preconception homocysteine and B vitamin status with preterm birth and birth of low-birth-weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in Chinese women. DESIGN: This was a case-control study of women aged 21-34 y. Preterm cases (n = 29) delivered living infants at <37 wk gestation; term controls (n = 405) delivered infants at > or =37 wk. LBW cases (n = 33) had infants weighing <2500 g; normal-birth-weight controls (n = 390) had infants weighing > or =2500 g. SGA cases (n = 65) had infants below the 10th percentile of weight-for-gestational-age; appropriate-for-gestational-age controls (n = 358) had infants above this cutoff. Nonfasting plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were measured before conception. RESULTS: Elevated homocysteine (> or =12.4 micro mol/L) was associated with a nearly 4-fold higher risk of preterm birth (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.0; P < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth was 60% lower among women with vitamin B-12 > or =258 pmol/L than among vitamin B-12-deficient women (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9; P < 0.05) and was 50% lower among women with vitamin B-6 > or =30 nmol/L than among vitamin B-6-deficient women (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.2; NS). Folate status was not associated with preterm birth, and homocysteine and B vitamin status were not associated with LBW or SGA status. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated homocysteine and suboptimal vitamin B-12 and B-6 status may increase the risk of preterm birth. These results need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies. (+info)
A preliminary study of circulating vitamins in a Puerto Rican migrant farm population in New Jersey.
A preliminary survey of circulating vitamin B12 biotin, folate, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, pantothenate, nicotinate, and vitamin A & B-carotene of 53 Puerto Rican migrant farm workers was undertaken. Results indicate that hypovitaminemia existed particularly for vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and vitamin A. (+info)