A new method for the assay of tissue. S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethione. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on the metabolism of S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine and polyamines in rat liver. (1/230)

The hepatic synthesis and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine and polyamines were studied in normal and vitamin B-6-deficient male albino rats. A method involving a single chromatography on a phosphocellulose column was developed for the determination of S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine from tissue samples. Feeding the rat with pyridoxine-deficient diet for 3 or 6 weeks resulted in a four- to five-fold increase in the concentration of S-adenosylhomocysteine, whereas that of S-adenosylmethionine was only slighly elevated. The concentration of putrescine was decreased to half, that of spermidine was somewhat decreased and that of spermine remained fairly constant. The activities of L-ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase, L-methionine adenosyltransferase and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase were moderately increased. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase showed no requirement for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The major effect of pyridoxine deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine metabolism seems to be a block in the utilization of S-adenosylhomocysteine, resulting in the accumulation of this metabolite to a concentration that may inhibit biological methylation reactions.  (+info)

Thiamin and pyridoxine requirements during intravenous hyperalimentation. (2/230)

Studies were undertaken to determine rational dosages of vitamin B1 and B6 during long-term intravenous hyperalimentation, using more sensitive techniques than formerly used to evaluate B1 and B6 status. A standard vitamin combination, type A, (usually commercially available products) has been used up to now because of convenience, disregarding the effects of long-term administration. This combination lacks biotin, folic acid, and vitamin E and contains from 10 to 100 times the dietary allowances of such vitamins as B1, B2, B6, B12, and C. In response to the possibility of vitamin overdose, two new vitamin combinations, type B (from commercial products) and type C (a convenient and easily administered combination produced at the hospital) were developed in order to provide the normal dietary allowances and at the same time eliminate any harmful side-effects. From the results obtained, 5 mg/day for thiamin HCl and 3 mg/day for pyridoxine HCl in type B and type C were found to be a sufficient and safe level as opposed to 55 mg/day for thiamin HCl and 102 mg/day for pyridoxine HCl in type A.  (+info)

Single versus multiple deficiencies of methionine, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and choline elicit surprising growth responses in young chicks. (3/230)

A soy-protein isolate diet that was deficient in methionine (Met), zinc (Zn), riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and choline for chick growth (Assay 1) was used to study individual or multiple deficiencies of several of these nutrients. In all cases, adding all three deficient nutrients together resulted in growth responses that were superior to those resulting from supplementation with any pairs of deficient nutrients. In Assay 2, single addition of Zn but not of methionine or riboflavin produced a growth response, but the combination of either Zn and Met or Zn and riboflavin resulted in growth responses that were greater than the response elicited by Zn alone. Assay 3 involved individual or multiple deficiencies of choline, riboflavin and vitamin B-6, and individual additions suggested that choline was first limiting. Choline + riboflavin supplementation, however, produced marked growth and gain:food responses that were far greater than those resulting from supplemental choline or riboflavin alone. Moreover, the growth response to a combination of choline + pyridoxine (PN) was also greater than that obtained from any of the three nutrients fed alone; even PN + riboflavin (in the absence of choline) produced responses greater than those observed with the unsupplemented negative-control diet. In Assay 4, chicks responded to individual additions of riboflavin, PN or Met, and in Assay 5, to either riboflavin or PN; all two-way combinations resulted in growth rates that were far greater than those occurring with any single addition. The data from these experiments show that unlike the situation with three deficient amino acids, the expected responses to first-, second- and third-limiting B-vitamins or deficient vitamins combined with deficient levels of Zn or Met do not follow the expected pattern of response to first-, further response to first- and second- and an even further response to first-, second- and third-limiting nutrients.  (+info)

Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II. (4/230)

The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.  (+info)

Vitamin B-6 inadequacy is prevalent in rural and urban Indonesian children. (5/230)

The vitamin B-6 status of Indonesian children was evaluated by determining their dietary vitamin B-6 intakes, erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficients and plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) concentrations. Thirty-eight third-grade elementary school children (ages = 8-9 y) in rural and 39 in urban areas of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, voluntarily served as subjects. The subjects included 39 male and 38 female students. The mean vitamin B-6 intake of the subjects was 0.57 mg/d. Fifty-five percentage of the children reported consuming <0.5 mg/d of vitamin B-6 (the 1998 Estimated Average Requirement for those 4-8 y). Erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficients >/= 1.25 were observed in 30%, and plasma PLP concentrations +info)

Effects of vitamin B-6 on (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. (6/230)

To investigate interactions between vitamin B-6 and fatty acid metabolism, male Wistar rats were fed a vitamin B-6 (B-6)-deficient diet consisting of 70% vitamin-free casein and 10% perilla oil [approximately 63% alpha-linolenic acid, (n-3)] for 5 wk. The amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) and arachidonic acid (n-6) in the B-6-deficient group changed only slightly compared with those in a pair-fed control group. The amount of linoleic acid increased and arachidonic acid decreased in the plasma total lipid fraction, and the ratios of both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the B-6-deficient group were significantly lower than for the controls. The ratios of alpha-linolenic acid and EPA were higher, and DHA lower, in the B-6-deficient group than in the pair-fed control group in the total lipid as well as phospholipid fractions in liver microsomes. The activity of delta6-desaturase was significantly lower in the B-6-deficient group than in the pair-fed control group (approximately 64%), and acyl-CoA oxidase activity, an initial enzyme of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway, was reduced by approximately 80% in the B-6-deficient group. These data suggest that B-6 deficiencies impair the metabolism of (n-3) PUFA from alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA with the most pronounced reduction in the production of DHA.  (+info)

Vitamin B-6 deficiency in rats reduces hepatic serine hydroxymethyltransferase and cystathionine beta-synthase activities and rates of in vivo protein turnover, homocysteine remethylation and transsulfuration. (7/230)

Vitamin B-6 deficiency causes mild elevation in plasma homocysteine, but the mechanism has not been clearly established. Serine is a substrate in one-carbon metabolism and in the transsulfuration pathway of homocysteine catabolism, and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) plays a key role as coenzyme for serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) and enzymes of transsulfuration. In this study we used [(2)H(3)]serine as a primary tracer to examine the remethylation pathway in adequately nourished and vitamin B-6-deficient rats [7 and 0.1 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet]. [(2)H(3)]Leucine and [1-(13)C]methionine were also used to examine turnover of protein and methionine pools, respectively. All tracers were injected intraperitoneally as a bolus dose, and then rats were killed (n = 4/time point) after 30, 60 and 120 min. Rats fed the low-PN diet had significantly lower growth and plasma and liver PLP concentrations, reduced liver SHMT activity, greater plasma and liver total homocysteine concentration, and reduced liver S-adenosylmethionine concentration. Hepatic and whole body protein turnover were reduced in vitamin B-6-deficient rats as evidenced by greater isotopic enrichment of [(2)H(3)]leucine. Hepatic [(2)H(2)]methionine production from [(2)H(3)]serine via cytosolic SHMT and the remethylation pathway was reduced by 80.6% in vitamin B-6 deficiency. The deficiency did not significantly reduce hepatic cystathionine-beta-synthase activity, and in vivo hepatic transsulfuration flux shown by production of [(2)H(3)]cysteine from the [(2)H(3)]serine increased over twofold. In contrast, plasma appearance of [(2)H(3)]cysteine was decreased by 89% in vitamin B-6 deficiency. The rate of hepatic homocysteine production shown by the ratio of [1-(13)C]homocysteine/[1-(13)C]methionine areas under enrichment vs. time curves was not affected by vitamin B-6 deficiency. Overall, these results indicate that vitamin B-6 deficiency substantially affects one-carbon metabolism by impairing both methyl group production for homocysteine remethylation and flux through whole-body transsulfuration.  (+info)

Neonatal pyridoxine responsive convulsions due to isoniazid therapy. (8/230)

A 17-day-old infant on isoniazid therapy 13 mg/kg daily from birth because of maternal tuberculosis was admitted after 4 days of clonic fits. No underlying infective or biochemical cause could be found. The fits ceased within 4 hours of administering intramuscular pyridoxine, suggesting an aetiology of pyridoxine deficiency secondary to isoniazid medication.  (+info)