Endothelin-1 contributes to hyperoxia-induced vasoconstriction in the human retina.
PURPOSE: There is evidence that ocular blood flow strongly depends on arterial oxygen tension. Results from recent animal studies indicate that the vasoconstrictor response to hyperoxia may be mediated in part by an increased production of endothelin (ET)-1. In an effort to answer the question whether the retinal vasoconstrictive response to hyperoxia in humans is mediated through ET-1, changes in ocular hemodynamics induced by 100% O2 breathing were studied in the absence and presence of an ET(A) receptor antagonist (BQ-123). METHODS: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, balanced, three-way crossover design. On separate study days 15 healthy male subjects received infusions of BQ-123 (either 60 microg/min or 120 microg/min) or placebo. The effects of BQ-123 or placebo on hyperoxia-induced (100% O2 breathing) changes in retinal and pulsatile choroidal blood flow were assessed with the blue-field entoptic technique and with laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation, respectively. RESULTS: During baseline conditions, hyperoxia caused a decrease in retinal blood flow between -29% and -34% (P<0.001) and a decrease in fundus pulsation amplitude between -7% and -8% (P<0.001). BQ-123 dose dependently blunted the response to hyperoxia in the retina (60 microg/min: -25%, 120 microg/min: -20%; P = 0.003), but not in the choroid. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ET-1 contributes to hyperoxia-induced retinal vasoconstriction in the human retina. (+info)
Effects of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on retinal leukocyte and erythrocyte flux in the human retina.
PURPOSE: The blue-field entoptic technique was introduced more than 20 years ago to quantify perimacular white blood cell flux. However, a final confirmation that the perceived corpuscles represent leukocytes is still unavailable. METHODS: The study design was randomized, placebo-controlled, and double masked with two parallel groups. Fifteen healthy male subjects received a single dose of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, 300 microg) and 15 other subjects received placebo. The following parameters were assessed at baseline and at 12 minutes and 8 hours after administration: retinal white blood cell flux, with the blue-field entoptic technique; retinal blood velocities, with bidirectional laser Doppler velocimetry; retinal venous diameter determined with a retinal vessel analyzer; and blood pressure and pulse rate determined by automated oscillometry and pulse oxymetry, respectively. RESULTS: After 12 minutes, G-CSF reduced total leukocyte count from 5.5 +/- 1.4 10(9)/L at baseline to 1.9 +/- 0.4 10(9)/L. This was paralleled by a 35% +/- 11% decrease in retinal white blood cell density. After 8 hours G-CSF increased total leukocyte counts to 20.0 +/- 4.4 10(9)/L. Again, this increase in circulating leukocytes was reflected by an increase in retinal white blood cell density (110% +/- 48%). All effects were significant at P < 0.001. By contrast, none of the other hemodynamic parameters was changed by administration of G-CSF. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that the blue-field entoptic technique assesses leukocyte movement in the perimacular capillaries of the retina. Moreover, white blood cell density appears to adequately reflect the number of circulating leukocytes within the retinal microvasculature. Hence, an increase in retinal white blood cell density does not necessarily reflect retinal vasodilatation. (+info)
Posterior vitreous detachment after cataract extraction in non-myopic eyes and the resulting retinal lesions.
A series of 54 non-myopic aphakic eyes with no signs of posterior vitreous detachment and 63 non-myopic aphakic eyes with various stages of posterior vitreous detachment was followed-up for a period of 6 months to 6 years. Over half of the eyes with no vitreous detachment when first examined developed various stages of posterior vitreous detachment during the follow-up period; in 10 eyes this was accompanied by entopsies with or without photopsies and three eyes developed five new retinal tears. In over half of the eyes with partial vitreous detachment when first examined, the vitreous detachment continued to progress causing retinal detachment in one eye. Late vitreous detachment in non-myopic aphakia or the completion of a partially-detached vitreous could account for the higher incidence of retinal tears in this group of eyes. (+info)
Entoptic image quality of the retinal vasculature.
Spatial details of entoptically visible retinal vessels were investigated using transcleral and Maxwellian-view stimulators. Nine normal subjects provided detailed drawings of the entoptic images which were digitized and superimposed onto digitized fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms from the same eyes. Subjects also used a tracing method to locate visible entoptic features. The trans-scleral method provided images similar in detail to standard fundus photography (lacking capillary detail, but capturing larger arteries, veins, arterioles and venules) in the macula and around the disk. The Maxwellian-view method illuminated the fovea (7.7 degree field) and provided foveola capillary detail (capillaries traversing the foveola, the capillary arcade forming the FAZ) as well as the larger foveal vessels supplying the foveola, and often contained more foveal detail that available with fluorescein angiography. (+info)
Scanning laser entoptic perimetry for the detection of age-related macular degeneration.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of scanning laser entoptic perimetry for detecting visual function damage due to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: We measured the presence or absence of visual field disturbances by entoptic perimetry and determined the severity of ARMD based on masked readings of fundus photographs. A prospective masked study comparing the findings of entoptic perimetry with fundus photographs was performed. We recruited 91 patients with ARMD and 24 patients without ARMD during ophthalmologic visits. An appropriate institutional review board approval was obtained for the project. The main outcome measure was the detection of visual scotomata. RESULTS: Scanning laser entoptic perimetry had an overall sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of ARMD. The sensitivity for early stages of the disease is greater than 70%, and increases to above 90% for moderate to late stages. CONCLUSION: Scanning laser entoptic perimetry is a specific and sensitive test for detecting ARMD, even at the earliest stages when patients are typically asymptomatic. (+info)
Imaging retinal capillaries using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics.
Investigation of the source of the blue field entoptic phenomenon.
The cellular source of the blue field entoptic phenomenon was investigated in two microvascular preparations using video-microscopy with lighting conditions similar to those under which the entoptic phenomenon is visualized within the human eye. In the wing of the hibernating bat, microvascular flow was simultaneously videotaped under transmission illumination at 430 nm and under unfiltered illumination. In the rat cremaster alternating observations were made using transmission illumination at 430 nm and epi-illumination fluorescence microscopy with leukocytes rendered fluorescent by intravenous Quinacrine. In both preparations, low magnification video-microscopy using 430 nm illumination produced a field of particles, which were brighter than the background, flowing within a network of dark vessels. The appearance of the particles and their movement simulated the blue field entoptic particle motion. Under higher magnification, the particles appeared brighter than the plasma gaps between red blood cells and were demonstrated to be leukocytes by morphology, by specific staining and by typical behavioral movement. The particles were observed in terminal arteriols capillaries, and post-capillary venules where they were not obscured by red blood cells. The results of this study of two microvascular preparations strongly suggest that in the human eye the blue field entoptic phenomenon is produced by leukocytes flowing within the macular retinal microvasculature. (+info)