The Visible Human data sets (VHD) and Insight Toolkit (ITk): experiments in open source software.
From its inception in 1989, the Visible Human Project was designed as an experiment in open source software. In 1994 and 1995 the male and female Visible Human data sets were released by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) as open source data sets. In 2002 the NLM released the first version of the Insight Toolkit (ITk) as open source software. (+info)
Augmented Reality for teaching endotracheal intubation: MR imaging to create anatomically correct models.
Clinical procedures have traditionally been taught at the bedside, in the morgue and in the animal lab. Augmented Reality (AR) technology (the merging of virtual reality and real objects or patients) provides a new method for teaching clinical and surgical procedures. Improved patient safety is a major advantage. We describe a system which employs AR technology to teach endotracheal intubation, using the Visible Human datasets, as well as MR images from live patient volunteers. (+info)
Development of a biomedical imaging informatics system for diagnosis and treatment planning.
The medical imaging technologies have been used for detecting tumors through the years. Tumors that can be viewed in imaging are usually big enough to contain billion tumor cells. Some patients may be cured if detected earlier and the surgery is performed well. Those lead to molecular imaging and image-guided surgery research activities, which post new challenges on large scale imaging data management and 3-D visualization. The goal of this project is to develop 3-D imaging informatics system that can interactively navigate large scale of organ and molecular levels imaging data for early diagnosis and treatment planning. (+info)
Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation.
Experimental results for changes in brain temperature during functional activation show large variations. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a careful numerical model for such changes. Here, a three-dimensional model of temperature in the human head using the bioheat equation, which includes effects of metabolism, perfusion, and thermal conduction, is employed to examine potential temperature changes due to functional activation in brain. It is found that, depending on location in brain and corresponding baseline temperature relative to blood temperature, temperature may increase or decrease on activation and concomitant increases in perfusion and rate of metabolism. Changes in perfusion are generally seen to have a greater effect on temperature than are changes in metabolism, and hence active brain is predicted to approach blood temperature from its initial temperature. All calculated changes in temperature for reasonable physiological parameters have magnitudes <0.12 degrees C and are well within the range reported in recent experimental studies involving human subjects. (+info)
Surface morphology of kidney, ureters and urinary bladder models based on data from the visible human male.
The aim of the present work was to create a simplified high-resolution three-dimensional model of kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder in a data form suitable for finite element/volume based numerical simulations. The exterior morphology of the organs was based on images from the Visible Human Male data set. In both the right and left kidney, there were defined their topographic relations to the neighbouring anatomical structures. This model of kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder will be incorporated into the model of The Visible Human Male abdomen and pelvis and it is ready to be used for numerical simulations in urinary system biomechanics. (+info)
Three dimensional reconstruction of the pancreas based on the virtual Chinese human--female number 1.
OBJECTIVE: To study the three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and 3D visualisation of the pancreas and create anatomy of the digitalised visual pancreas so as to construct a concrete basis for virtual operation and surgical operation on pancreas. METHODS: The digital imaging data of pancreas, duodenum, common bile duct, arteries, and veins were obtained from the virtual Chinese human--female 1 (VCH-F1). The image data were investigated and 380 images ascertained of pancreas picked up from images numbers 2617 to 2996. Finally, the images from number 2574 to 3017 were adopted to segment and processed using ACDSee and Photoshop so as to reconstruct 3D pancreas digitally. The data of pancreatic surfaces were transformed into Visualization Toolkit (VTK). The GUI program written with VC+ was used to display this VTK file and realise 3D visualisation of the pancreas. RESULTS: 3D reconstruction and visualisation of the pancreas and the peri-pancreatic structures (the duodenum, the common bile duct,the inferior vena cava, the portal vein vessels, the aorta, the coeliac trunk vessels) was successful. The 3D and visualised pancreas manifested itself with its complete structure as well as its adjacency to other tissues. CONCLUSION: The 3D reconstruction and 3D visualisation of the pancreas based on the digital data of VCH-F1 produces a digitally visualised pancreas, which promises a novel method for virtual operation on the pancreas, clinical operation on the pancreas, and anatomy of 3D visualised pancreas. (+info)
Three-dimensional reconstruction of urogenital tract from Visible Korean Human.
The three-dimensional (3D) modeling from anatomical images is revealed to be a remarkable learning tool in anatomy. This is particularly true for the pelvis area and the urogenital tract. The authors present here a 3D reconstruction of the male urogenital tract from the Visible Korean Human data. The segmentation of 440 anatomical images was arranged in a pile and processed by the SURFdriver software to build an interactive 3D model. Forty-two anatomical structures were reconstructed, including kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder (outer and inner boundaries), urethra, testes, epididymides, ducti deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, rectum, anal canal, abdominal aorta, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, inferior vena cava, renal veins, lumbar vertebrae, intervertebral discs, sacrum, hip bones, femurs, and skin. Three-dimensional models of 42 anatomical structures can be individually and interactively manipulated. In addition, the use is able to control the transparency of the model. The aim of this computerized modeling is to present a learning tool for students and patients. In the near future, it could be the basis of new simulation tools for surgeon's training. (+info)
Should we continue teaching anatomy by dissection when ...?
The central role that human dissection has long held in clinical education is being reevaluated in many institutions. Despite the impression that many institutions are abandoning dissection, very few have and most of those have reinstated dissection within a few years. What are the inherent qualities that lead institutions back to dissection? In our efforts to redesign a shortened dissection course, our consultations with a broad range of clinicians lead us to understand how the rhythms of clinical practice are modeled and developed in the small-group setting of the dissection laboratory. Following further consultation with colleagues who have experimented with different models of anatomy instruction, we discuss three themes in support of dissection. First, problem-solving in the dissection laboratory develops the habits-of-mind of clinical practice. Second, relating dissection to imaging modalities develops the spatial reasoning skills needed to understand computer simulations, interpret imaging data, and interact with surgeons, radiologists, and patients. Third, the human face of dissection fosters self-reflection and integration of the cognitive and affective skills required for medical practice. Through group process, the collaborative effort of dissection teams develops essential of attributes of clinical professionalism. (+info)