Properties of non-polymerizable tropomyosin obtained by carboxypeptidase A digestion.
Tropomyosin digested with carboxypeptidase A [EC 18.104.22.168] (CTM) shows a lower viscosity than the undigested protein in solution. From the relation between the viscosity decrease and the amount of amino acids liberated from the carboxyl terminus during this digestion, it is inferred that loss of the tri-peptide-Thr-Ser-Ile from the C-terminus is responsible for the decrease in viscosity. The secondary structure of -TM was not affected by the digestion according to circular dichroic measurements. The viscosity of CTM did not increase in methanol-water mixtures, whereas that of tropomyosin increased markedly. These results indicate that polymerizability was lost upon the removal of a small peptide from the C-terminus without change in the secondary structure. A decrease in the viscosity of tropomyosin solutions was observed on the addition of CTM, indicating that CTM interacts with intact tropomyosin. The dependence of the viscosity decrease on the amount of CTM showed that CTM binds tropomyosin in a one-to-one ratio as a result of end-to-end interaction. Since paracrystals having a 400 A repeated band structure could be grown in the presence of Mg ions at neutral pH, side-by-side interactions in CTM molecules remain intact, even though polymerizability is lost. The disc gel electrophoretic pattern showed that troponin could bind to CTM, but no increase in viscosity due to the complex was observed in solution. That is, the C-terminal part of tropomyosin is not required for the formation of the complex. The amount of CTM bound to F-actin was less than half of that bound to undigested tropomyosin, and could be reduced to one-tenth by a washing procedure. In the presence of troponin, however, the amount recovered to the level of tropomyosin normally bound to F-actin. Therefore, it is concluded that troponin is bound in the middle of the tropomyosin molecule and strengthens the binding of tropomyosin to F-actin. (+info)
Association and dissociation kinetics of bobwhite quail lysozyme with monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5.
The anti-hen egg lysozyme monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5 and its complexes with various species-variant and mutant lysozymes have been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. The affinity of HyHEL-5 for bobwhite quail lysozyme (BWQL) is over 1000-fold lower than its affinity for the original antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL). This difference is believed to arise almost entirely from the replacement in BWQL of the structural and energetic epitope residue Arg68 by lysine. In this study, the association and dissociation kinetics of BWQL with HyHEL-5 were investigated under a variety of conditions and compared with previous results for HEL. HyHEL-5-BWQL association follows a bimolecular mechanism and the dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex is a first-order process. Changes in ionic strength (from 27 to 500 mM) and pH (from 6.0 to 10.0) produced about a 2-fold change in the association and dissociation rates. The effect of viscosity modifiers on the association reaction was also studied. The large difference in the HEL and BWQL affinities for HyHEL-5 is essentially due to differences in the dissociation rate constant. (+info)
Altered crossbridge kinetics in the alphaMHC403/+ mouse model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
A mutation in the cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain, Arg403Gln (R403Q), causes a severe form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) in humans. We used small-amplitude (0.25%) length-perturbation analysis to examine the mechanical properties of skinned left ventricular papillary muscle strips from mouse hearts bearing the R403Q mutation in the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC403/+). Myofibrillar disarray with variable penetrance occurred in the left ventricular free wall of the alphaMHC403/+ hearts. In resting strips (pCa 8), dynamic stiffness was approximately 40% greater than in wild-type strips, consistent with elevated diastolic stiffness reported for murine hearts with FHC. At pCa 6 (submaximal activation), strip isometric tension was approximately 3 times higher than for wild-type strips, whereas at pCa 5 (maximal activation), tension was marginally lower. At submaximal calcium activation the characteristic frequencies of the work-producing (b) and work-absorbing (c) steps of the crossbridge were less in alphaMHC403/+ strips than in wild-type strips (b=11+/-1 versus 15+/-1 Hz; c= 58+/-3 versus 66+/-3 Hz; 27 degrees C). At maximal calcium activation, strip oscillatory power was reduced (0. 53+/-0.25 versus 1.03+/-0.18 mW/mm3; 27 degrees C), which is partly attributable to the reduced frequency b, at which crossbridge work is maximum. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the R403Q mutation reduces the strong binding affinity of myosin for actin. Myosin heads may accumulate in a preforce state that promotes cooperative activation of the thin filament at submaximal calcium but blunts maximal tension and oscillatory power output at maximal calcium. The calcium-dependent effect of the mutation (whether facilitating or debilitating), together with a variable degree of fibrosis and myofibrillar disorder, may contribute to the diversity of clinical symptoms observed in murine FHC. (+info)
Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion.
Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung. (+info)
A three-month repeated oral administration study of a low viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in rats.
The toxicity of the lowest viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) that is currently commercially available was investigated by means of a three-month repeated oral administration study in male and female Crj:CD (SD) IGS rats at doses of 505, 1,020 and 2,100 mg/kg/day. Body weights of males and females in the 2,100 mg/kg group were lower than those of the control group on and after day 28 of administration, but the differences were not statistically significant. The degree of suppression of body weight gain in males was higher than that in females. This tendency was similar to the results in other toxicity studies of HPMC that have been reported. Males in the 2,100 mg/kg group showed a tendency (not significant) for decreased food consumption and urine volume. Examinations of general signs, hematology, blood chemistry, ophthalmology, absolute and relative organ weights, autopsy and histopathology revealed only a few, apparently coincidental, statistically significant differences from the control, and no evidence of any dose-dependent changes was found. It was concluded that the lowest viscosity grade of HPMC showed extremely low toxicity under the conditions of this study, as has been found for higher viscosity grades. (+info)
Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow.
The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased. (+info)
Thiol oxidation of actin produces dimers that enhance the elasticity of the F-actin network.
Slow oxidation of sulfhydryls, forming covalently linked actin dimers and higher oligomers, accounts for increases in the shear elasticity of purified actin observed after aging. Disulfide-bonded actin dimers are incorporated into F-actin during polymerization and generate cross-links between actin filaments. The large gel strength of oxidized actin (>100 Pa for 1 mg/ml) in the absence of cross-linking proteins falls to within the theoretically predicted order of magnitude for uncross-linked actin filament networks (1 Pa) with the addition of sufficient concentrations of reducing agents such as 5 mM dithiothreitol or 10 mM beta-mercaptoethanol. As little as 1 gelsolin/1000 actin subunits also lowers the high storage modulus of oxidized actin. The effects of gelsolin may be both to increase filament number as it severs F-actin and to cover the barbed end of an actin filament, which otherwise might cross-link to the side of another filament via an actin dimer. These new findings may explain why previous studies of actin rheology report a wide range of values when purified actin is polymerized without added regulatory proteins. (+info)
Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase is partially diffusion-controlled.
The effect of viscosogens on the enzyme-catalyzed rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate has been studied. The steady-state parameters kcat and kcat/Km for the monofunctional chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCM) decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of glycerol, whereas the 'sluggish' BsCM mutants C75A and C75S were insensitive to changes in microviscosity. The latter results rule out extraneous interactions of the viscosogen as an explanation for the effects observed with the wild-type enzyme. Additional control experiments show that neither viscosogen-induced shifts in the pH-dependence of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction nor small perturbations of the conformational equilibrium of chorismate can account for the observed effects. Instead, BsCM appears to be limited by substrate binding and product release at low and high substrate concentrations, respectively. Analysis of the kinetic data indicates that diffusive transition states are between 30 and 40% rate-determining in these concentration regimes; the chemical step must contribute to the remaining kinetic barrier. The relatively low value of the 'on' rates for chorismate and prephenate (approximately 2 x 106 m-1.s-1) probably reflects the need for a rare conformation of the enzyme, the ligand, or both for successful binding. Interestingly, the chorismate mutase domain of the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase from Escherichia coli, which has steady-state kinetic parameters comparable to those of BsCM but has a much less accessible active site, is insensitive to changes in viscosity and the reaction it catalyses is not diffusion-controlled. (+info)