Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.
If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures. (+info)
Natural history of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in children of mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
The natural history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in 556 infants born to 517 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected mothers was studied in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. HIV-1-infected children had a cumulative EBV infection rate similar to HIV-1-uninfected children at age 3 years (77.8% vs. 84. 9%) but had more frequent oropharyngeal EBV shedding (50.4% vs. 28. 2%; P<.001). The probability of shedding decreased with longer time from EBV seroconversion and was similar to that of HIV-1-uninfected children 3 years after seroconversion. HIV-1-infected children identified as rapid progressors shed EBV more frequently than nonrapid progressors (69.4% vs.41.0%; P=.01). HIV-1-infected children with EBV infection had higher mean CD8 cell counts. EBV infection did not have an independent effect on mean CD4 cell counts, percent CD4, IgG levels, HIV-1 RNA levels, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly. Early EBV infection is common in children born to HIV-1-infected mothers. Children with rapidly progressive HIV-1 disease have more frequent EBV shedding. (+info)
BK and JC viruses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalent and persistent BK viruria, sequence stability of the viral regulatory regions, and nondetectable viremia.
A role for polyomaviruses in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been suggested. BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) were demonstrated in single urine specimens from 7 (16%) of 44 and 5 (11%) of 44 patients with SLE and 0/88 and 18 (21%) of 88 matched healthy controls, respectively. During a 1-year follow-up study, episodes of polyomaviruria were detected in 16 (80%) of 20 patients, BKV in 13, and JCV in 3 patients. A group of 12 (60%) of 20 patients demonstrated persistent or recurrent polyomaviruria, BKV viruria (n=9), or JCV viruria (n=3) in 180 (70%) of 256 specimens. Polyomaviruria was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy. The BKV and JCV isolates revealed predominantly stable archetypal regulatory regions over 3 years, indicating viral persistence rather than reinfection as a cause for urinary shedding. The demonstration of nondetectable viremia and stable archetypal BKV and JCV noncoding control regions during persistent viruria argue against the urinary tract as a focus for the creation of rearranged regulatory region variants. (+info)
Antibody-independent protection against rotavirus infection of mice stimulated by intranasal immunization with chimeric VP4 or VP6 protein.
This study was to determine whether individual rotavirus capsid proteins could stimulate protection against rotavirus shedding in an adult mouse model. BALB/c mice were intranasally or intramuscularly administered purified Escherichia coli-expressed murine rotavirus strain EDIM VP4, VP6, or truncated VP7 (TrVP7) protein fused to the 42.7-kDa maltose-binding protein (MBP). One month after the last immunization, mice were challenged with EDIM and shedding of rotavirus antigen was measured. When three 9-microg doses of one of the three rotavirus proteins fused to MBP were administered intramuscularly with the saponin adjuvant QS-21, serum rotavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) was induced by each protein. Following EDIM challenge, shedding was significantly (P = 0.02) reduced (i.e., 38%) in MBP::VP6-immunized mice only. Three 9-micrograms doses of chimeric MBP::VP6 or MBP::TrVP7 administered intranasally with attenuated E. coli heat-labile toxin LT(R192G) also induced serum rotavirus IgG, but MBP::VP4 immunization stimulated no detectable rotavirus antibody. No protection against EDIM shedding was observed in the MBP::TrVP7-immunized mice. However, shedding was reduced 93 to 100% following MBP::VP6 inoculation and 56% following MBP::VP4 immunization relative to that of controls (P = <0.001). Substitution of cholera toxin for LT(R192G) as the adjuvant, reduction of the number of doses to 1, and challenge of the mice 3 months after the last immunization did not reduce the level of protection stimulated by intranasal administration of MBP::VP6. When MBP::VP6 was administered intranasally to B-cell-deficient microMt mice that made no rotavirus antibody, shedding was still reduced to <1% of that of controls. These results show that mice can be protected against rotavirus shedding by intranasal administration of individual rotavirus proteins and that this protection can occur independently of rotavirus antibody. (+info)
Treatment of HSV-1 infection with immunoglobulin or acyclovir: comparison of their effects on viral spread, latency, and reactivation.
We compared immunoglobulin (IgG) and acyclovir (ACV) therapies on the establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency of HSV-1(McKrae) in a mouse ocular infection model. Mice were given one intraperitoneal (IP) dose of human IgG 24 h after infection (Day 1 p. i.) or ACV in the drinking water from Days 1 to 7 p.i. Both treatments allowed similar percentages of mice to survive the infection and decreased ocular virus shedding as compared with untreated controls. At most time points, there were no differences between IgG- and ACV-treated animals with respect to tissue virus titers or in the rates of virus reactivation during explant cocultivation. However, after ultraviolet exposure, HSV reactivated in 30% of ACV-treated mice compared with 90% of IgG-treated mice (P = 0.02). Also by quantitative PCR, we found more latent HSV-1 DNA copies in IgG-treated mice compared with those given ACV (P = 0.02). IgG treatment protects mice from HSV-1 infection essentially as well as ACV does. Nonetheless, it permits higher levels of latent infection and subsequent in vivo reactivation. These studies have implications for the mechanism by which IgG functions to attenuate HSV infections and for its potential value as a therapeutic agent in humans. (+info)
Risk factors for HIV-1 shedding in semen.
Semen is the body fluid most commonly associated with sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Because the male genitourinary tract is distinct immunologically from blood, compartment-dependent factors may determine HIV-1 shedding in semen. To identify these factors, the authors obtained 411 semen and blood specimens from 149 men seen up to three times. Seminal plasma was assayed for HIV-1 RNA and semen was cocultured for HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV), which may up-regulate HIV-1 replication. The best multivariate model for predicting a positive semen HIV-1 coculture included two local urogenital factors, increased seminal polymorphonuclear cell count (odds ratio (OR) = 12.6 for each log10 increase/mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.2, 134.5) and a positive CMV coculture (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.2, 7.7). The best multivariate model for predicting semen HIV-1 RNA included two systemic host factors, CD4+ cell counts <200/microliter (OR = 3.0, 95 percent CI 1.3, 6.9) and nucleoside antiretroviral therapy (monotherapy: OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0; combination therapy: OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9), and a positive CMV coculture (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0, 3.0). Thus, both systemic and local genitourinary tract factors influence the risk of semen HIV-1 shedding. These findings suggest that measures of systemic virus burden alone may not predict semen infectivity reliably. (+info)
HSV-1 migration in latently infected and naive rabbits after penetrating keratoplasty.
PURPOSE: To investigate the migration of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) between latently infected and naive corneal tissues and trigeminal ganglion (TG) in rabbits after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and transcorneal epinephrine iontophoresis. METHODS: Two mutants, genetically constructed from HSV-1 strain 17syn+, were used to inoculate rabbit corneas: 17deltaPst, a latency associated transcript (LAT) negative, low-reactivating virus and 17Pr, a high-reactivating, LAT-positive rescuant of 17deltaPst. Latently infected rabbits were given corneal allografts from naive rabbits, and naive rabbits received grafts from latently infected rabbits. Ninety days after PKP, groups of the transplanted rabbits were induced to reactivate by transcorneal epinephrine iontophoresis, but others were not induced. Viral shedding was monitored by tear film cultures. Rabbits were killed 5 days after iontophoresis. Transplanted grafts, recipient corneal rims, and corresponding TG were obtained. Nucleic acids were extracted and amplified for detection of HSV-1 DNA and viral gene transcription. RESULTS: In naive rabbits receiving grafts transplanted from rabbits latently infected with 17Pr (LAT+), 3 of 6 corneal rims contained HSV DNA after induction. In contrast, none of the 5 corneal rims from naive rabbits receiving grafts from rabbits latent with 17deltaPst (LAT-) contained viral DNA. Viral DNA and gene transcripts were detected in 2 of 6 TG from naive rabbits that received grafts from 17Pr (LAT+) latently infected rabbits. In recipient corneal rims and TG of latently infected rabbits receiving grafts from naive rabbits, viral DNA concentration was significantly greater with induced reactivation, compared with the results in noninduced rabbits. The amount of viral DNA in naive grafts transplanted into 17Pr (LAT+) latently infected rabbits was significantly higher with induction than without induction (P = 0.018). More viral DNA and viral gene transcripts were found in tissues from rabbits latently infected with 17Pr (LAT+) than in rabbits latently infected with 17deltaPst (LAT-). CONCLUSIONS: Corneas from latently infected rabbits contain HSV-1 DNA that can replicate after induced reactivation. Viral migration can occur in both anterograde and retrograde directions between the transplanted graft and the recipient corneal rim and TG. The LAT negative HSV-1 construct 17deltaPst has a significantly reduced ability to replicate and migrate. (+info)
Quantification of JC virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy--a longitudinal study.
In progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) the JC virus (JCV) load in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is discussed as a parameter for disease progression. To investigate the evolution of viral shedding into the CSF, the JCV DNA concentration was quantified by competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in multiple CSF samples from prior to and during an unsuccessful intrathecal salvage therapy in 2 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with biopsy-proven PML. With continuous clinical progression the virus load varied considerably intra- and interindividually, ranging from nondetectable to 1.2x108 genome equivalents/10 microliter CSF. Whereas an overall increase during progressive disease was confirmed, the virus burden was either constant or fluctuated irregularly during the intermediate stage of disease. This shows a variability of viral shedding during active disease that must be taken into account when the JCV load is measured by quantitative PCR for both the diagnosis of PML and monitoring under investigational treatment. (+info)