(1/588) Peptide inhibitors of dengue virus and West Nile virus infectivity.

Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral infection. The envelope glycoprotein (E) of flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), are class II viral fusion proteins comprised predominantly of beta sheets. We used a physio-chemical algorithm, the Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity scale (WWIHS) in combination with known structural data to identify potential peptide inhibitors of WNV and DENV infectivity that target the viral E protein. Viral inhibition assays confirm that several of these peptides specifically interfere with target virus entry with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the 10 microM range. Inhibitory peptides similar in sequence to domains with a significant WWIHS scores, including domain II (IIb), and the stem domain, were detected. DN59, a peptide corresponding to the stem domain of DENV, inhibited infection by DENV (>99% inhibition of plaque formation at a concentrations of <25 microM) and cross-inhibition of WNV fusion/infectivity (>99% inhibition at <25 microM) was also demonstrated with DN59. However, a potent WNV inhibitory peptide, WN83, which corresponds to WNV E domain IIb, did not inhibit infectivity by DENV. Additional results suggest that these inhibitory peptides are noncytotoxic and act in a sequence specific manner. The inhibitory peptides identified here can serve as lead compounds for the development of peptide drugs for flavivirus infection.  (+info)

(2/588) The SARS coronavirus S glycoprotein receptor binding domain: fine mapping and functional characterization.

The entry of the SARS coronavirus (SCV) into cells is initiated by binding of its spike envelope glycoprotein (S) to a receptor, ACE2. We and others identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) by using S fragments of various lengths but all including the amino acid residue 318 and two other potential glycosylation sites. To further characterize the role of glycosylation and identify residues important for its function as an interacting partner of ACE2, we have cloned, expressed and characterized various soluble fragments of S containing RBD, and mutated all potential glycosylation sites and 32 other residues. The shortest of these fragments still able to bind the receptor ACE2 did not include residue 318 (which is a potential glycosylation site), but started at residue 319, and has only two potential glycosylation sites (residues 330 and 357). Mutation of each of these sites to either alanine or glutamine, as well as mutation of residue 318 to alanine in longer fragments resulted in the same decrease of molecular weight (by approximately 3 kDa) suggesting that all glycosylation sites are functional. Simultaneous mutation of all glycosylation sites resulted in lack of expression suggesting that at least one glycosylation site (any of the three) is required for expression. Glycosylation did not affect binding to ACE2. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the fragment S319-518 resulted in the identification of ten residues (K390, R426, D429, T431, I455, N473, F483, Q492, Y494, R495) that significantly reduced binding to ACE2, and one residue (D393) that appears to increase binding. Mutation of residue T431 reduced binding by about 2-fold, and mutation of the other eight residues--by more than 10-fold. Analysis of these data and the mapping of these mutations on the recently determined crystal structure of a fragment containing the RBD complexed to ACE2 (Li, F, Li, W, Farzan, M, and Harrison, S. C., submitted) suggested the existence of two hot spots on the S RBD surface, R426 and N473, which are likely to contribute significant portion of the binding energy. The finding that most of the mutations (23 out of 34 including glycosylation sites) do not affect the RBD binding function indicates possible mechanisms for evasion of immune responses.  (+info)

(3/588) Characterization of the human chemerin receptor--ChemR23/CMKLR1--as co-receptor for human and simian immunodeficiency virus infection, and identification of virus-binding receptor domains.

Studies were conducted to elucidate co-receptor spectrum and function of the inflammatory receptor, CMKLR1/ChemR23, which was recently identified as the receptor for the cystatin-like chemoattractant, TIG2, also named chemerin. An infection model was applied based on stably transfected NP-2.CD4 host cells expressing various co-receptor constructs and exposed to panels of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV primary isolates. In a panel of 27 HIV-1 isolates tested, 12 isolates could use CMKLR1/ChemR23. As expected from a relatively high sequence homology with the extracellular domains of CCR3, HIV-1 isolates showing R3 tropism were particularly efficient in using CMKLR1/ChemR23. In addition, 5 out of 7 HIV-2 isolates and 13 out of 15 SIV (SMM-3 origin) used CMKLR1/ChemR23, in accordance with the previously documented ability of these isolates to use several co-receptors. In order to define important extracellular epitopes for the viral interaction, a hybrid receptor model was applied. This was based on the fact that the rat receptor, although structurally very similar to the human orthologue, was inefficient as viral co-receptor. When the rat receptor was "humanized" to include regions unique to the human receptor (N-terminus or second extracellular loop), exposure to HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV isolates resulted in infection. The relative importance of the two critical receptor regions differed between HIV-1/HIV-2 on the one hand and SIV on the other. The results strongly support that the chemerin receptor, in the presence of CD4, functions as a "minor co-receptor" promoting infection by these classes of viruses.  (+info)

(4/588) Identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding an RGD-containing protein in large yellow croaker iridovirus.

Many virus-encoded RGD-containing proteins have been reported to play important roles in virus attachment and entry. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of a gene encoding an RGD-containing protein (037L) from large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV), a causative agent of epizootics among large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea. The 037L gene is 1347 bp long and encodes a protein of 449 amino acids containing a biologically active RGD tri-peptide predicted with SURFC and STRIDE software. Temporal analysis of 037L gene transcription showed that this gene was a late gene. Subcellular localization of 037L in insect Hi5 cells using baculovirus vector system indicated that 037L might be a membrane-tropistic protein and functionally associated with the cytoplasma-membrane. The recombinant 037L expressed in E. coli could effectively induce the morphological changes of BF-2 cells and promote cellular aggregation, demonstrating that it can bind with surface molecules of BF-2 cells. The neutralization assay showed that LYCIV infection of BF-2 cells was significantly inhibited by anti-037L IgG, as determined by a real-time PCR of viral concentrations in the culture supernatants of LYCIV-infected cells, suggesting that it might have an important role in virus infectivity. This is the first report of the functional gene involved in virus infection and virus-host interaction in Megalocytivirus.  (+info)

(5/588) Members of adenovirus species B utilize CD80 and CD86 as cellular attachment receptors.

Alternate serotypes of adenovirus (Ad), including Ads of species B, are being explored to circumvent the disadvantages of Ad serotype 5 gene delivery vectors. Whereas the majority of human Ads utilize the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), none of the Ad species B use CAR. Ad species B is further divided into two subspecies, B1 and B2, and utilizes at least two classes of receptors: common Ad species B receptors and B2 specific receptors. CD46 has been implicated as a B2-specific receptor. Ad serotype 3 (Ad3), a member of B1, utilizes CD80 and CD86 as cellular attachment receptors. The receptor-interacting Ad fiber-knob domain is highly homologous among species B Ads. We hypothesized that other members of Ad species B may utilize CD80 and CD86 as cellular attachment receptors. All tested species B members showed specific binding to cells expressing CD80 and CD86, and the Ad fiber-knob domain from both B1 and B2 Ad efficiently blocked CD80- and CD86-mediated infection of Ad3 vectors. Members of both B1 and B2 demonstrated CD80- and CD86-specific infection of CHO cells expressing CD80 and CD86. Therefore, all of the members of Ad species B utilize CD80 and CD86 for infection of cells.  (+info)

(6/588) R5- and X4-HIV-1 use differentially the endometrial epithelial cells HEC-1A to ensure their own spread: implication for mechanisms of sexual transmission.

The mechanism of viral transmission across the mucosal barrier is poorly understood. Using the endometrial epithelium-derived cell line HEC-1A, we found that the cells are capable of sequestering large numbers of HIV-1 particles but are refractory to cell-free viral infection. The removal of heparan sulfate moieties of cell-surface proteoglycans (HSPG) from the apical pole of HEC-1A accounted for at least 60% of both R5- and X4-HIV-1 attachment, showing their important implication in viral attachment. HEC-1A cells also have the capacity to endocytose a weak proportion of the attached virus and pass it along to underlying cells. Fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylated-residues inhibited the transcytosis of some virus isolates, suggesting that mannose receptors can be implicated on the both R5- and X4-HIV-1 transcytosis. The inhibition of HIV transcytosis by blocking CCR5 mAb suggests the implication of specific interaction between the viral gp120 and sulfated moiety of syndecans during the transcytosis of mostly R5- and X4-HIV-1. At the basolateral pole of HEC-1A, HSPG sequestered X4- and not R5-HIV-1, highlighting the important role of HEC-1A as an X4 virus reservoir. The cell-free virus particles that have transcytosed could infect activated T cells but with a weaker efficiency than virus that had not transcytosed. The specific stimulation of HEC-1A by R5-HIV-1 increased the release of monocytes/chemokines-attracting chemokines (IL-8 and GR0) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-beta and IL-1alpha) that enhanced the production of virus by activated T cells. This study suggests that R5 and X4 viruses can differentially use epithelial cells to ensure their own spread.  (+info)

(7/588) A dominant role for FcgammaRII in antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of human mast cells and associated CCL5 release.

Dengue virus is a major mosquito-borne human pathogen with four known serotypes. The presence of antidengue virus antibodies in the serum of individuals prior to dengue virus infection is believed to be an important risk factor for severe dengue virus disease as a result of the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement operating on Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing cells. In addition to blood monocytes, mast cells are susceptible to antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection, producing a number of inflammatory mediators including IL-1, IL-6, and CCL5. Using the human mast cell-like lines KU812 and HMC-1 as well as primary cultures of human cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMC), we aimed to identify the participating FcRs in antibody-enhanced mast cell dengue virus infection, as FcRs represent a potential site for therapeutic intervention. CBMC expressed significant levels of FcgammaRI, FcgammaRII, and FcgammaRIII, and mast cell-like HMC-1 and KU812 cells expressed predominantly FcgammaRII. All four serotypes of dengue virus showed antibody-enhanced binding to KU812 cells. Specific FcgammaRII blockade with mAb IV.3 was found to significantly abrogate dengue virus binding to KU812 cells and CBMC in the presence of dengue-specific antibody. Dengue virus infection and the production of CCL5 by KU812 cells were also inhibited by FcgammaRII blockade.  (+info)

(8/588) Single amino acid changes can influence titer, heparin binding, and tissue tropism in different adeno-associated virus serotypes.

Despite the high degree of sequence homology between adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 6 capsids (99.2%), these viruses have different liver transduction profiles when tested as vectors. Examination of the six amino acid residues that differ between AAV1 and AAV6 revealed that a lysine-to-glutamate change (K531E) suppresses the heparin binding ability of AAV6. In addition, the same mutation in AAV6 reduces transgene expression to levels similar to those achieved with AAV1 in HepG2 cells in vitro and in mouse liver following portal vein administration. In corollary, the converse E531K mutation in AAV1 imparts heparin binding ability and increases transduction efficiency. Extraction of vector genomes from liver tissue suggests that the lysine 531 residue assists in preferential transduction of parenchymal cells by AAV6 vectors in comparison with AAV1. Lysine 531 is unique to AAV6 among other known AAV serotypes and is located in a basic cluster near the spikes that surround the icosahedral threefold axes of the AAV capsid. Similar to studies with autonomous parvoviruses, this study describes the first example of single amino acid changes that can explain differential phenotypes such as viral titer, receptor binding, and tissue tropism exhibited by closely related AAV serotypes. In particular, a single lysine residue appears to provide the critical minimum charged surface required for interacting with heparin through electrostatic interaction and simultaneously plays an unrelated yet critical role in the liver tropism of AAV6 vectors.  (+info)