Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir.
Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day. (+info)
Development and use of a 293 cell line expressing lac repressor for the rescue of recombinant adenoviruses expressing high levels of rabies virus glycoprotein.
An expression cassette designed for high-level production of rabies virus glycoprotein (RG) could not be rescued into a replication-defective, adenovirus-based vector using standard procedures. To overcome this difficulty, a 293-based cell line, designated 293LAP13, was constructed that contained and expressed a derivative of the lac repressor protein. The lac operator sequence, to which the repressor binds, was incorporated into an expression cassette, containing a promoter and intron, designed for high-level production of RG. Insertion of a single operator sequence immediately downstream of the transcription start site and the use of the 293LAP13 cell line allowed recombinant viruses that could not be isolated with 293 cells to be rescued efficiently. The operator-containing virus reached higher titres in 293LAP13 than in parental 293 cells and also produced plaques more efficiently in 293LAP13 cells. Moreover, in non-complementing human and canine cell lines, adenovirus vectors with a promoter-intron expression cassette expressed RG at much higher levels than vectors lacking the intron. These observations, together with the demonstration that expression of RG by operator-containing vectors was repressed markedly in 293LAP13 cells and that this inhibition was relieved at least partly by IPTG, suggest that the 293LAP13 cell line may be useful for the rescue and propagation of many vectors in which high expression of the desired protein prevents vector rescue in 293 cells. (+info)
Complementation of P37 (F13L gene) knock-out in vaccinia virus by a cell line expressing the gene constitutively.
Vaccinia virus produces two different infectious forms, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Acquisition of the EEV envelope occurs by wrapping of IMV with vesicles of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The most abundant protein in the envelope of EEV, P37, is a 37 kDa palmitylated protein encoded by the F13L gene. P37 is located in the inner side of the EEV envelope and accumulates in the TGN during infection. Deletion of gene F13L results in a severe defect in the wrapping process, although normal levels of IMV are produced. A cell line, derived from RK-13 cells, was obtained that stably expressed P37 (RK(P37)), and the properties of the protein were studied in the absence of other viral polypeptides. P37 produced in RK(P37) cells differed from P37 produced in vaccinia-infected cells in terms of hydrophobicity and intracellular distribution. Despite these differences, RK(P37) cells partially complemented the phenotypic defect of vaccinia virus P37- mutants. EEV production and cell-to-cell virus spread by mutant viruses were increased significantly in RK(P37) cells when compared to normal RK-13 cell cultures. Infection of RK(P37) cells with P37- virus substantially altered the hydrophobicity and the intracellular distribution of P37 in those cells. These results indicate the requirement of the infection context for determination of the normal palmitylation and intracellular localization of P37. (+info)
Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of moronic acid purified from Rhus javanica in vitro and in vivo.
Rhus javanica, a medicinal herb, has been shown to exhibit oral therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in mice. We purified two major anti-HSV compounds, moronic acid and betulonic acid, from the herbal extract by extraction with ethyl acetate at pH 10 followed by chromatographic separations and examined their anti-HSV activity in vitro and in vivo. Moronic acid was quantitatively a major anti-HSV compound in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The effective concentrations for 50% plaque reduction of moronic acid and betulonic acid for wild-type HSV type 1 (HSV-1) were 3.9 and 2.6 microgram/ml, respectively. The therapeutic index of moronic acid (10.3-16.3) was larger than that of betulonic acid (6.2). Susceptibility of acyclovir-phosphonoacetic acid-resistant HSV-1, thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1, and wild-type HSV type 2 to moronic acid was similar to that of the wild-type HSV-1. When this compound was administered orally to mice infected cutaneously with HSV-1 three times daily, it significantly retarded the development of skin lesions and/or prolonged the mean survival times of infected mice without toxicity compared with the control. Moronic acid suppressed virus yields in the brain more efficiently than those in the skin. This was consistent with the prolongation of mean survival times. Thus, moronic acid was purified as a major anti-HSV compound from the herbal extract of Rhus javanica. Mode of the anti-HSV activity was different from that of ACV. Moronic acid showed oral therapeutic efficacy in HSV-infected mice and possessed novel anti-HSV activity that was consistent with that of the extract. (+info)
A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance.
We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses. (+info)
Herpes simplex virus entry is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins.
The initial step in herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry is binding of virion glycoprotein (g)C and/or gB to cell surface heparan sulfate. After this initial attachment, gD interacts with cell surface receptor or receptors, and the virion envelope fuses with the cell membrane. Fusion requires viral glycoproteins gB, gD, gL, and gH, but the cellular factors that participate in or the pathways activated by viral entry have not been defined. To determine whether signal transduction pathways are triggered by viral-cell fusion, we examined the association of viral entry with tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, we found that at least three cytoplasmic host cell proteins, designated p80, p104, and p140, become tyrosine phosphorylated within 5-10 min after exposure to HSV-1 or HSV-2. However, no phosphorylation is detected when cells are exposed to a mutant virus deleted in gL that binds but fails to penetrate. Phosphorylation is restored when the gL-deletion virus is grown on a complementing cell line. Viral entry and the phosphorylation of p80, p104, and p140 are inhibited when cells are infected with virus in the presence of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Taken together, these studies suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of host cellular proteins is triggered by viral entry. (+info)
Recombinant influenza A virus vaccines for the pathogenic human A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses.
Recombinant reassortment technology was used to prepare H5N1 influenza vaccine strains containing a modified hemagglutinin (HA) gene and neuraminidase gene from the A/Hong Kong/156/97 and A/Hong Kong/483/97 isolates and the internal genes from the attenuated cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus strain. The HA cleavage site (HA1/HA2) of each H5N1 isolate was modified to resemble that of "low-pathogenic" avian strains. Five of 6 basic amino acids at the cleavage site were deleted, and a threonine was added upstream of the remaining arginine. The H5 HA cleavage site modification resulted in the expected trypsin-dependent phenotype without altering the antigenic character of the H5 HA molecule. The temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted phenotype of the attenuated parent virus was maintained in the recombinant strains, and they grew to 108.5-9.4 EID50/mL in eggs. Both H5N1 vaccine virus strains were safe and immunogenic in ferrets and protected chickens against wild-type H5N1 virus challenge. (+info)
Surfactant protein-A enhances respiratory syncytial virus clearance in vivo.
To determine the role of surfactant protein-A(SP-A) in antiviral host defense, mice lacking SP-A (SP-A-/-) were produced by targeted gene inactivation. SP-A-/- and control mice (SP-A+/+) were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by intratracheal instillation. Pulmonary infiltration after infection was more severe in SP-A-/- than in SP-A+/+ mice and was associated with increased RSV plaque-forming units in lung homogenates. Pulmonary infiltration with polymorphonuclear leukocytes was greater in the SP-A-/- mice. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were enhanced in lungs of SP-A-/- mice. After RSV infection, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation was deficient in macrophages from SP-A-/- mice, demonstrating a critical role of SP-A in oxidant production associated with RSV infection. Coadministration of RSV with exogenous SP-A reduced viral titers and inflammatory cells in the lung of SP-A-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that SP-A plays an important host defense role against RSV in vivo. (+info)