Definition of a major p53 binding site on Ad2E1B58K protein and a possible nuclear localization signal on the Ad12E1B54K protein.
Previous studies have established that adenovirus 2/5 early region 1B (Ad E1B) 58K protein binds p53 strongly and co-localizes with it to cytoplasmic dense bodies whilst the homologous Ad12E1B54K protein binds only weakly and co-localizes primarily to the nucleus in Ad12E1 transformed cells. We have used these properties of the E1B proteins from different viral serotypes to map the p53 binding site on the Ad2/5 protein. A set of chimaeric genes was constructed containing different proportions of the Ad12 and Ad2E1B DNA. These, together with Ad12E1A and E1B19K DNA, were transfected into baby rat kidney cells and transformed lines isolated. From an examination of the properties of these Ad12/Ad2E1B fusion proteins in co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular localization experiments it has been concluded that the p53 binding site on Ad2E1B58K protein lies between amino acids 216 and 235 and that the homologous region on Ad12E1B54K protein also binds p53. In addition, a unique nuclear localization signal is located on Ad12E1B54K between residues 228 and 239. We suggest that primary structure differences in these regions of the Ad2 and Ad12E1B proteins are responsible for the different subcellular localizations in AdE1 transformants. (+info)
The cytoplasmic tail of the influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF negatively affects transport to the cell surface.
The surface glycoprotein, HEF, of influenza C virus (C/Johannesburg/1/66) has been shown to undergo a post-translation conformational change that is evident in a dramatic change of electrophoretic mobility. If the corresponding gene is expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, this folding process does not occur at all or only very inefficiently. A chimaeric protein, HEF-HA(Tail), in which the short cytoplasmic tail (Arg-Thr-Lys) of HEF was replaced by the cytoplasmic tail of the haemagglutinin of an influenza A virus (fowl plague virus) was constructed. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the chimaeric protein was detected on the cell surface. No further improvement of the surface expression was observed when both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail were replaced by the corresponding domains of either the influenza A haemagglutinin or gp40, an endogenous protein of MDCK cells. For the HEF-HA(Tail) construct this study shows that a substantial amount of the protein is converted to the 100 kDa mature form that is observed in virus-infected cells. The HEF-HA expressed on the cell surface reacted positively in esterase and haemadsorption assays, indicating that it was present in a biologically active form. The results show that the short cytoplasmic tail of HEF has a negative effect on the folding and surface transport of this protein. How this effect may be prevented during a virus infection is discussed. (+info)
Glycoprotein gL-independent infectivity of pseudorabies virus is mediated by a gD-gH fusion protein.
Envelope glycoproteins gH and gL, which form a complex, are conserved throughout the family Herpesviridae. The gH-gL complex is essential for the fusion between the virion envelope and the cellular cytoplasmic membrane during penetration and is also required for direct viral cell-to-cell spread from infected to adjacent noninfected cells. It has been proposed for several herpesviruses that gL is required for proper folding, intracellular transport, and virion localization of gH. In pseudorabies virus (PrV), glycoprotein gL is necessary for infectivity but is dispensable for virion localization of gH. A virus mutant lacking gL, PrV-DeltagLbeta, is defective in entry into target cells, and direct cell-to-cell spread is drastically reduced, resulting in only single or small foci of infected cells (B. G. Klupp, W. Fuchs, E. Weiland, and T. C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 71:7687-7695, 1997). We used this limited cell-to-cell spreading ability of PrV-DeltagLbeta for serial passaging of cells infected with transcomplemented virus by coseeding with noninfected cells. After repeated passaging, plaque formation was restored and infectivity in the supernatant was observed. One single-plaque isolate, designated PrV-DeltagLPass, was further characterized. To identify the mutation leading to this gL-independent infectious phenotype, Southern and Western blot analyses, radioimmunoprecipitations, and DNA sequencing were performed. The results showed that rearrangement of a genomic region comprising part of the gH gene into a duplicated copy of part of the unique short region resulted in a fusion fragment predicted to encode a protein consisting of the N-terminal 271 amino acids of gD fused to the C-terminal 590 residues of gH. Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation with gD- and gH-specific antibodies verified the presence of a gDH fusion protein. To prove that this fusion protein mediates infectivity of PrV-DeltagLPass, cotransfection of PrV-DeltagLbeta DNA with the cloned fusion fragment was performed, and a cell line, Nde-67, carrying the fusion gene was established. After cotransfection, infectious gL-negative PrV was recovered, and propagation of PrV-DeltagLbeta on Nde-67 cells produced infectious virions. Thus, a gDH fusion polypeptide can compensate for function of the essential gL in entry and cell-to-cell spread of PrV. (+info)
Gene transfer to mammalian cells using genetically targeted filamentous bacteriophage.
We have genetically modified filamentous bacteriophage to deliver genes to mammalian cells. In previous studies we showed that noncovalently attached fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) can target bacteriophage to COS-1 cells, resulting in receptor-mediated transduction with a reporter gene. Thus, bacteriophage, which normally lack tropism for mammalian cells, can be adapted for mammalian cell gene transfer. To determine the potential of using phage-mediated gene transfer as a novel display phage screening strategy, we transfected COS-1 cells with phage that were engineered to display FGF2 on their surface coat as a fusion to the minor coat protein, pIII. Immunoblot and ELISA analysis confirmed the presence of FGF2 on the phage coat. Significant transduction was obtained in COS-1 cells with the targeted FGF2-phage compared with the nontargeted parent phage. Specificity was demonstrated by successful inhibition of transduction in the presence of excess free FGF2. Having demonstrated mammalian cell transduction by phage displaying a known gene targeting ligand, it is now feasible to apply phage-mediated transduction as a screen for discovering novel ligands. (+info)
Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus.
We have characterized the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) of puffinosis virus (PV), a coronavirus closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Analysis of the cloned gene revealed approximately 85% sequence identity to HE proteins of MHV and approximately 60% identity to the corresponding esterase of bovine coronavirus. The HE protein exhibited acetylesterase activity with synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate. In contrast to other viral esterases, no activity was detectable with natural substrates containing 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Furthermore, PV esterase was unable to remove influenza C virus receptors from human erythrocytes, indicating a substrate specificity different from HEs of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Solid-phase binding assays revealed that purified PV was unable to bind to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates like bovine submaxillary mucin, mouse alpha1 macroglobulin or bovine brain extract. Because of the close relationship to MHV, possible implications on the substrate specificity of MHV esterases are suggested. (+info)
Highly diverse intergenic regions of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 cooperate with the gene end U tract in viral transcription termination and can influence reinitiation at a downstream gene.
A dicistronic minigenome containing the M-F gene junction was used to determine the role of the simian virus 5 (SV5) intergenic regions in transcription. The M-F junction differs from the other SV5 junctions by having a short M gene end U tract of only four residues (U4 tract) and a 22-base M-F intergenic sequence between the M gene end and F gene start site. Replacing the 22-base M-F intergenic region with nonviral sequences resulted in a minigenome template (Rep 22) that was defective in termination at the end of the M gene. Efficient M gene termination could be restored to the mutant Rep 22 template in either of two ways: by increasing the U tract length from four to six residues or by restoring a G residue immediately downstream of the wild-type (WT) U4 tract. In a dicistronic SH-HN minigenome, a U4-G combination was functionally equivalent to the naturally occurring SH U6-A gene end in directing SH transcription termination. In addition to affecting termination, the M-F intergenic region also influenced polymerase reinitiation. In the context of the WT U4-G M gene end, substituting nonviral sequences into the M-F intergenic region had a differential effect on F gene reinitiation, where some but not all nonviral sequences inhibited reinitiation. The inhibition of F gene reinitiation correlated with foreign sequences having a high C content. Deleting 6 bases or inserting 18 additional nucleotides into the middle of the 22-base M-F intergenic segment did not influence M gene termination or F gene reinitiation, indicating that M-F intergenic length per se is not a important factor modulating the SV5 polymerase activity. Our results suggest that the sequence diversity at an SV5 gene junction reflects specific combinations which may differentially affect SV5 gene expression and provide an additional level of transcriptional control beyond that which results from the distance of a gene from the 3' end promoter. (+info)
Structural basis for paramyxovirus-mediated membrane fusion.
Paramyxoviruses are responsible for significant human mortality and disease worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their entry into host cells remain poorly understood. We have solved the crystal structure of a fragment of the simian parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein (SV5 F), revealing a 96 A long coiled coil surrounded by three antiparallel helices. This structure places the fusion and transmembrane anchor of SV5 F in close proximity with a large intervening domain at the opposite end of the coiled coil. Six amino acids, potentially part of the fusion peptide, form a segment of the central coiled coil, suggesting that this structure extends into the membrane. Deletion mutants of SV5 F indicate that putative flexible tethers between the coiled coil and the viral membrane are dispensable for fusion. The lack of flexible tethers may couple a final conformational change in the F protein directly to the fusion of two bilayers. (+info)
The hemagglutinin-esterase of mouse hepatitis virus strain S is a sialate-4-O-acetylesterase.
By comparative analysis of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of mouse hepatitis virus strain S (MHV-S) and the HE protein of influenza C virus, we found major differences in substrate specificities. In striking contrast to the influenza C virus enzyme, the MHV-S esterase was unable to release acetate from bovine submandibulary gland mucin. Furthermore, MHV-S could not remove influenza C virus receptors from erythrocytes. Analysis with free sialic acid derivatives revealed that the MHV-S HE protein specifically de-O-acetylates 5-N-acetyl-4-O-acetyl sialic acid (Neu4, 5Ac2) but not 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl sialic acid (Neu5,9Ac2), which is the major substrate for esterases of influenza C virus and bovine coronaviruses. In addition, the MHV-S esterase converted glycosidically bound Neu4,5Ac2 of guinea pig serum glycoproteins to Neu5Ac. By expression of the MHV esterase with recombinant vaccinia virus and incubation with guinea pig serum, we demonstrated that the viral HE possesses sialate-4-O-acetylesterase activity. In addition to observed enzymatic activity, MHV-S exhibited affinity to guinea pig and horse serum glycoproteins. Binding required sialate-4-O-acetyl groups and was abolished by chemical de-O-acetylation. Since Neu4,5Ac2 has not been identified in mice, the nature of potential substrates and/or secondary receptors for MHV-S in the natural host remains to be determined. The esterase of MHV-S is the first example of a viral enzyme with high specificity and affinity toward 4-O-acetylated sialic acids. (+info)