Exposure of human vascular endothelial cells to sustained hydrostatic pressure stimulates proliferation. Involvement of the alphaV integrins.
The present study investigated the effects of sustained hydrostatic pressure (SHP; up to 4 cm H2O) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, focal adhesion plaque (FAP) organization, and integrin expression. Exposure of HUVECs to SHP stimulated cell proliferation and a selective increase in the expression of integrin subunit alphaV. The increase in alphaV was observed as early as 4 hours after exposure to pressure and preceded detectable increases in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Laser confocal microscopy studies demonstrated colocalization of the alphaV integrin to FAPs. The individual FAPs in pressure-treated cells demonstrated a reduced area and increased aspect ratio and were localized to both peripheral and more central regions of the cells, in contrast to the predilection for the cell periphery in cells maintained under control pressure conditions. The pressure-induced changes in alphaV distribution had functional consequences on the cells: adhesivity of the cells to vitronectin was increased, and alphaV antagonists blocked the pressure-induced proliferative response. Thus, the present study suggests a role for alphaV integrins in the mechanotransduction of pressure by endothelial cells. (+info)
Locomotory behaviour of epitheliocytes and fibroblasts on metallic grids.
Behaviour of epitheliocytes and fibroblasts on special discontinuous substrata (metallic grids with square openings of 45x45 microm2) was examined in order to compare the ability of these cells to spread in two mutually perpendicular directions and to stretch over the void spaces. Two cell types with typical fibroblastic morphology, the AGO 1523 line of human foreskin fibroblasts and secondary cultures of mouse embryo fibroblasts, and three cell types with typical epithelial morphology, primary mouse hepatocytes, the IAR-2 line of rat liver cells and the MDCK line of canine kidney epithelial cells (clone 20) were used. We also examined the epitheliocytes (MDCK cells, clone 20) transformed to fibroblast-like morphology by treatment with hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). Time-lapse video microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to examine cell reorganizations at various stages of spreading. It was found that early stages of spreading of fibroblasts and epitheliocytes were similar: the cell spread along two bars, perpendicular to each other (bar and crossbar), with the formation of a small triangular lamellar cytoplasm stretched over the opening. Later central parts of the bodies of the fibroblasts retracted from the bars so that the cells remained attached only by their polar lamellae. Successive expansions and partial retractions of these lamellae led to elongation of the cell body crossing several openings of the grid. Epitheliocytes, in contrast to fibroblasts, at the late stages of spreading did not retract their bodies and did not contract polar lamellae. As a result, their central lamellae stretched progressively over the openings. As a result of the treatment of MDCK epitheliocytes with HGF/SF the behaviour of the cells on the grids became similar to that of fibroblasts. It is suggested that these distinct spreading patterns of epitheliocytes and fibroblasts are due to the type-specific differences in the actin-myosin cortex. Experiments with microtubule-specific drugs, colcemid and taxol, indicate that the organization of this cortex is under microtubular control. (+info)
Ponsin/SH3P12: an l-afadin- and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions.
We recently isolated a novel actin filament (F-actin)-binding protein, afadin, that has two isoforms, l- and s-afadins. l-Afadin is ubiquitously expressed and specifically localized at zonula adherens (ZA) in epithelial cells and at cell-cell adherens junction (AJ) in nonepithelial cells, whereas s-afadin is abundantly expressed in neural tissue. l-Afadin has one PDZ domain, three proline-rich regions, and one F-actin-binding domain, whereas s-afadin lacks the third proline-rich region and the F-actin-binding domain. To understand the molecular mechanism of the specific localization of l-afadin at ZA in epithelial cells and at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, we attempted here to identify an l-afadin-binding protein(s) and isolated a protein, named ponsin. Ponsin had many splicing variants and the primary structures of two of them were determined. Both the two variants had three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and turned out to be splicing variants of SH3P12. The third proline-rich region of l-afadin bound to the region of ponsin containing the second and third SH3 domains. Ponsin was ubiquitously expressed and localized at ZA in epithelial cells, at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, and at cell-matrix AJ in both types of cells. Ponsin furthermore directly bound vinculin, an F-actin-binding protein localized at ZA in epithelial cells, at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, and at cell-matrix AJ in both types of cells. Vinculin has one proline-rich region where two proline-rich sequences are located. The proline-rich region bound to the region of ponsin containing the first and second SH3 domains. l-Afadin and vinculin bound to ponsin in a competitive manner and these three proteins hardly formed a ternary complex. These results indicate that ponsin is an l-afadin- and vinculin-binding protein localized at ZA in epithelial cells, at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, and at cell-matrix AJ in both types of cells. (+info)
Functional domains of alpha-catenin required for the strong state of cadherin-based cell adhesion.
The interaction of cadherin-catenin complex with the actin-based cytoskeleton through alpha-catenin is indispensable for cadherin-based cell adhesion activity. We reported previously that E-cadherin-alpha-catenin fusion molecules showed cell adhesion and cytoskeleton binding activities when expressed in nonepithelial L cells. Here, we constructed deletion mutants of E-cadherin-alpha-catenin fusion molecules lacking various domains of alpha-catenin and introduced them into L cells. Detailed analysis identified three distinct functional domains of alpha-catenin: a vinculin/alpha-actinin-binding domain, a ZO-1-binding domain, and an adhesion-modulation domain. Furthermore, cell dissociation assay revealed that the fusion molecules containing the ZO-1-binding domain in addition to the adhesion-modulation domain conferred the strong state of cell adhesion activity on transfectants, although those lacking the ZO-1-binding domain conferred only the weak state. The disorganization of actin-based cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D treatment shifted the cadherin-based cell adhesion from the strong to the weak state. In the epithelial cells, where alpha-catenin was not precisely colocalized with ZO-1, the ZO-1-binding domain did not completely support the strong state of cell adhesion activity. Our studies showed that the interaction of alpha-catenin with the actin-based cytoskeleton through the ZO-1-binding domain is required for the strong state of E-cadherin-based cell adhesion activity. (+info)
Role of the S. typhimurium actin-binding protein SipA in bacterial internalization.
Entry of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium into host cells requires membrane ruffling and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, it is shown that the bacterial protein SipA plays a critical role in this process. SipA binds directly to actin, decreases its critical concentration, and inhibits depolymerization of actin filaments. These activities result in the spatial localization and more pronounced outward extension of the Salmonella-induced membrane ruffles, thereby facilitating bacterial uptake. (+info)
Zyxin and vinculin distribution at the cell-extracellular matrix attachment complex (CMAX) in corneal epithelial tissue are actin dependent.
Avian embryonic corneal epithelia are two cell layers thick. If isolated without (-) basal lamina, the basal cells have unorganized actin and project cytoplasmic protrusions termed blebs. The actin-based cytoskeleton at the cell-extracellular matrix junction (termed the actin cortical mat) is disrupted. These epithelia respond to soluble extracellular matrix molecules by reorganizing the actin cortical mat. Sheets of epithelia were isolated + or -basal lamina. Epithelia isolated -basal lamina were cultured +/- laminin-1 and/or +/- cytochalasin D (CD). The intracellular localization of zyxin, vinculin, paxillin, focal adhesion kinase, and tensin was determined using indirect immunohistochemistry. Protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Zyxin and vinculin were concentrated in two areas of the tissue. The interface between the upper cell layer (periderm) and the basal cells. The second area of concentration was at the inferior 1-4 microns of the basal cells in an area with multiple actin bundles termed the actin cortical mat. The actin bundles align toward zyxin and vinculin that were located near basal lateral membranes. Zyxin was displaced from the basal compartment of blebbing basal cells. In contrast tensin, vinculin and focal adhesion kinase were found diffusely throughout the blebs. Zyxin and vinculin redistributed to the basal-lateral membranes as actin bundles reorganized in laminin-stimulated epithelia. In contrast to the altered protein distribution, extractable protein levels were similar in blebbing and laminin-stimulated epithelia. Zyxin, vinculin, and other associated proteins were disrupted in the CD-treated tissues and do not colocalize with each other or CD-induced actin aggregates. The intracellular localization of zyxin and vinculin were concentrated in distinct areas along the inferior basolateral membranes of basal cells termed the cell-extracellular matrix attachment complex (CMAX). The distribution of CMAX proteins was dependent upon actin bundle organization. (+info)
Latrunculin-A increases outflow facility in the monkey.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of Latrunculin (LAT)-A, a macrolide that binds to G-actin, which leads to the disassembly of actin filaments, on shape, junctions, and the cytoskeleton of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and on outflow facility in living monkeys. METHODS: Latrunculin-A dose-time-response relationships in BAECs were determined by immunofluorescence and phase contrast light microscopy, facility by two-level constant pressure anterior chamber perfusion. RESULTS: In BAECs, LAT-A caused dose- and incubation time- dependent destruction of actin bundles, cell separation, and cell loss. Cell-cell adhesions were more sensitive than focal contacts. Recovery was also dose- and time-dependent. In monkeys, exchange intracameral infusion and topical application of LAT-A induced dose- and time-dependent several-fold facility increases. The facility increase was completely reversed within several hours after drug removal. However, for at least 24 hours after a single topical LAT-A dose, perfusion with drug-free solution caused an accelerated increase in facility beyond that attributed to normal resistance washout. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the trabecular meshwork by specific actin inhibitors like LAT-A may be a useful antiglaucoma strategy. (+info)
High resolution detection of mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate.
We have developed a new approach to detect mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate. Cells were cultured on elastic, collagen-coated polyacrylamide sheets embedded with 0. 2-micrometer fluorescent beads. Forces exerted by the cell cause deformation of the substrate and displacement of the beads. By recording the position of beads during cell locomotion and after cell removal, we discovered that most forces were radially distributed, switching direction in the anterior region. Deformations near the leading edge were strong, transient, and variable in magnitude, consistent with active local contractions, whereas those in the posterior region were weaker, more stable, and more uniform, consistent with passive resistance. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin D or myosin II inhibitors caused relaxation of the forces, suggesting that they are generated primarily via actin-myosin II interactions; treatment with nocodazole caused no immediate effect on forces. Immunofluorescence indicated that the frontal region of strong deformation contained many vinculin plaques but no apparent concentration of actin or myosin II filaments. Strong mechanical forces in the anterior region, generated by locally activated myosin II and transmitted through vinculin-rich structures, likely play a major role in cell locomotion and in mechanical signaling with the surrounding environment. (+info)