Resorption protection. Anthocyanins facilitate nutrient recovery in autumn by shielding leaves from potentially damaging light levels.
The resorption protection hypothesis, which states that anthocyanins protect foliar nutrient resorption during senescence by shielding photosynthetic tissues from excess light, was tested using wild-type (WT) and anthocyanin-deficient mutants of three deciduous woody species, Cornus sericea, Vaccinium elliottii (Chapmn.), and Viburnum sargentii (Koehne). WT Betula papyrifera (Marsh) was included to compare the senescence performance of a species that does not produce anthocyanins in autumn. Plants were subjected to three environmental regimes during senescence: an outdoor treatment; a 5-d high-stress (high light and low temperature) treatment followed by transfer to a low-stress environment and a low-stress treatment that served as control. In the outdoor treatment, the appearance of anthocyanins in senescing leaves of WT plants was concomitant with the development of photo-inhibition in mutant plants of all three anthocyanin-producing species. In the high-stress environment, WT plants maintained higher photochemical efficiencies than mutants and were able to recover when transferred to the low-stress environment, whereas mutant leaves dropped while still green and displayed signs of irreversible photooxidative damage. Nitrogen resorption efficiencies and proficiencies of all mutants in both stressful treatments were significantly lower than the WT counterparts. B. papyrifera displayed photochemical efficiencies and nitrogen resorption performance comparable with the highest of the anthocyanin-producing species in all three senescing environments, indicating a photoprotective strategy divergent from the other species studied. These results strongly support the resorption protection hypothesis of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. (+info)
Furcatin hydrolase from Viburnum furcatum Blume is a novel disaccharide-specific acuminosidase in glycosyl hydrolase family 1.
Furcatin hydrolase (FH) is a unique disaccharide-specific acuminosidase, which hydrolyzes furcatin (p-allylphenyl 6-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (acuminoside)) into p-allylphenol and the disaccharide acuminose. We have isolated a cDNA coding for FH from Viburnum furcatum leaves. The open reading frame in the cDNA encoded a 538-amino acid polypeptide including a putative chloroplast transit peptide. The deduced protein showed 64% identity with tea leaf beta-primeverosidase, which is another disaccharide glycosidase specific to beta-primeverosides (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides). The deduced FH also shared greater than 50% identity with various plant beta-glucosidases in glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant FH expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited the highest level of activity toward furcatin with a Km value of 2.2 mm and specifically hydrolyzed the beta-glycosidic bond between p-allylphenol and acuminose, confirming FH as a disaccharide glycosidase. The FH also hydrolyzed beta-primeverosides and beta-vicianoside (6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) but poorly hydrolyzed beta-gentiobiosides (6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-d-glucopyranosides), indicating high substrate specificity for the disaccharide glycone moiety. The FH exhibited activity toward p-allylphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside containing the same aglycone as furcatin but little activity toward the other beta-D-glucopyranosides. Stereochemical analysis using 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that FH is a retaining glycosidase. The subcellular localization of FH was analyzed using green fluorescent protein fused with the putative N-terminal signal peptide, indicating that FH is localized to the chloroplast. Phylogenetic analysis of plant beta-glucosidases revealed that FH clusters with beta-primeverosidase, and this suggests that the disaccharide glycosidases will form a new subfamily in glycosyl hydrolase family 1. (+info)
Complex combination of seed dormancy and seedling development determine emergence of Viburnum tinus (Caprifoliaceae).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The shrub Viburnum tinus is widely distributed in mattoral vegetation of the Mediterranean basin. The purpose of the present study was to classify the seed dormancy type and examine the requirements for embryo growth, root protrusion and shoot emergence. METHODS: Overwintered fruits were collected in western Spain in April 2001 and prepared in three ways: entire pericarp was removed, exocarp and mesocarp were removed or fruits were left intact. Fruits treated in these three ways were subjected to artificial annual temperature cycles or to constant temperature regimes for 1.5 years. KEY RESULTS: Removal of exocarp and mesocarp was necessary for embryo growth and germination. High temperature favoured dormancy alleviation and embryo growth, intermediate to low temperatures favoured root protrusion, and intermediate temperature shoot emergence. There was substantial germination at constant temperature regimes, indicating an overlap between temperature intervals suitable for the different stages of embryo and seedling development. Functionally, V. tinus has the same root and shoot emergence pattern that is described for other Viburnum species considered to have epicotyl dormancy. However, the requirement for high and low temperatures for radicle protrusion and epicotyl emergence, respectively, was missing in V. tinus; these characters are the foundation for the epicotyl dormancy classification. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that V. tinus does not have epicotyl dormancy. Instead, there is a combination of a weak morphophysiological dormancy and a slow germination process, where different temperatures during an annual cycle favour different development stages. The present study suggests that the first complete seedlings would emerge in the field 1.5 years after fruit maturation in October, i.e. seed dispersal during winter, embryo growth during the first summer, root protrusion and establishment during the second autumn and winter, and cotyledon emergence during the second spring. (+info)
Rearranged vibsane-type diterpenes from Viburnum awabuki and photochemical reaction of vibsanin B.
Nine new diterpenes, neovibsanin D (1), 7-epi-neovibsanin D (2), 15-O-methylneovibsanin F (3), 14-epi-15-O-methylneovibsanin F (4), 15-O-methyl-18-oxoneovibsanin F (5), 2-O-methylneovibsanin H (6), 2-O-methylneovibsanin I (7), neovibsanin G (8), and 14-epi-neovibsanin G (9), were isolated from a methanol extract of the leaves of Viburnum awabuki. Their structures were elucidated to be uniquely rearranged vibsane-type diterpenes by spectroscopic analyses and comparison of NMR data with those of previously reported vibsane-type diterpenes. In addition, irradiation of vibsanin B (12) in methanol with a high-pressure Hg lump led to the direct formation of neovibsanins A (14) and B (15). These results gave a clue to understanding of the biogenetic interconversion of 11-membered vibsanins into neovibsanins. (+info)
Cytotoxic iridoid aldehydes from Taiwanese Viburnum luzonicum.
Four new iridoid aldehydes bearing (E)- or (Z)-p-coumaroyl group, luzonial A (1), luzonial B (2), luzonidial A (3), and luzonidial B (4), were isolated from a methanol extract of the dried leaves of Viburnum luzonicum collected in Kaoshiung, Taiwan and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against HeLa S3 cancer cells. (+info)
Influence of Viburnum opulus proanthocyanidins on stress-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage.
Recent studies demonstrated that the proanthocyanidins (PA), the polymers of flavan-3-ols, naturally occurring plant metabolites widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, flowers and bark, have anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, anti-allergic, antioxidant and vasodilatory actions. We hypothesized that Viburnum opulus PA (VOPA, Caprifoliaceae), due to activation of multifactorial gastrointestinal mucosal defense mechanisms, exert gastroduodenoprotective effects. The aim of the study was: 1) to investigate VOPA effects on gastroduodenal mucosal integrity and pattern of carbohydrate binding proteins and nitric oxide (NO) content in intact mucosa and that exposed to non-topical ulcerogens (stress) in rats without and with capsaicin (125 mg/kg, sc) denervation; and 2), to assess the role of activity of antioxidizing enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) in VOPA-induced gastroduodenoprotection against water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) in rats. VOPA was administered orally in dose of 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg body weight. Gastroduodenal mucosal damage detected by routine light microscopic investigation and lectin histochemistry set, purified from plant and animal sources of Carpatian region. NO content, pro-and antioxidant system were determined by routine laboratory methods. Pretreatment with VOPA afforded gastroduodenoprotection and was accompanied by an increase in NO expression, both changes being reversed by sensory denervation, as well as by the rise of SOD, CAT activity and fall in MDA content. Our study shows that VOPA exerts a potent gastroduodenoprotective activity via an increase in endogenous NO generation, suppression of lipid peroxidation and mobilization of antioxidant activity and changes in glycoconjugate content of the gastroduodenal mucosa of rat. (+info)
Phytochemical composition and metabolic performance-enhancing activity of dietary berries traditionally used by Native North Americans.
Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.
Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. (+info)