Genesis of variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: role of the CTXphi array and its position in the genome.
The gene encoding cholera toxin, the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, is encoded by a filamentous, lysogenic bacteriophage known as CTXphi. The genome of V. cholerae, the host for CTXphi, consists of two chromosomes, one large and one small. Here, it is shown that localization and array of CTX prophage DNA in either the large or small chromosome of V. cholerae is likely to be one of the reasons for the emergence of O1 biotype El Tor variants isolated just before and after the V. cholerae O139 cholera outbreak in 1992. Analyses of the organization of the CTX region of the genome of pre-O139 El Tor strains revealed that these strains carry two distinct CTX prophages integrated in the small chromosome in tandem: CTX(ET), the prophage having a conserved NotI site in its repeat sequence segment which seems to be specific for the El Tor strains so far examined, followed by CTX(calc)-like genome, the prophage found in recent O139 clinical isolates from Calcutta. In sharp contrast, in post-O139 El Tor strains only one copy of the CTX(ET) prophage was found to be integrated in the large chromosome. To the authors' knowledge, the presence of CTX prophage in the small chromosome of O1 El Tor strains has not been reported previously. It is also shown that the difference in the CTX copy number and the position of the bacteriophage on the genomes of pre- and post-O139 El Tor strains have an effect on cholera toxin production. While a pre-O139 strain produced maximum cholera toxin in yeast extract/peptone medium at 30 degrees C, a post-O139 El Tor strain showed maximal yield at 37 degrees C, indicating differential regulation of cholera toxin between the strains. It appears from this study that the variation in the integration site of the CTX prophage, its copy number and the presence of diverse phage genomes in V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor may be strategically important for generating variants with subtle phenotypic modulations of virulence factor production in this longest-ruling seventh pandemic strain. (+info)
Survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and its survival over the winter in marine water of Port of Osaka.
The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987-2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation. (+info)
Molecular subtyping of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in Hong Kong: correlation with epidemiological events from 1994 to 2002.
Two hundred twenty isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 collected from 1994 to 2002 in Hong Kong were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal DNAs from all V. cholerae isolates in agarose plugs were digested with the restriction enzyme NotI, resulting in 20 to 27 bands. Sixty distinctive PFGE patterns in the range of 10 to 300 kb were noted among 213 isolates typeable by PFGE. By comparing the common PFGE patterns obtained from four well-defined outbreaks of V. cholerae O1 and O139 with those obtained from other, epidemiologically unrelated isolates during the study period, indistinguishable and similar PFGE patterns were identified, indicating their close relatedness, in agreement with the results of epidemiological investigations. Heterogeneous PFGE patterns (with four to six banding differences), however, were identified among strains that were imported from other parts of Asia, including Indonesia, India, and Pakistan. Correlations with epidemiological information further support the usefulness of PFGE as an epidemiological tool in laboratory investigations of suspected outbreaks. Standardization of PFGE methodology will allow international comparison of fingerprint patterns and will form the basis of a laboratory network for tracking V. cholerae. (+info)
Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 in red tide waters off California.
Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 is autochthonous to estuarine and coastal waters. However, its population dynamics in such environments are not well understood. We tested the proliferation of V. cholerae N16961 during a Lingulodinium polyedrum bloom, as well as other seawater conditions. Microcosms containing 100-kDa-filtered seawater were inoculated with V. cholerae or the 0.6- micro m-pore-size filterable fraction of seawater assemblages. These cultures were diluted 10-fold with fresh 100-kDa-filtered seawater every 48 h for four cycles. Growth rates ranged from 0.3 to 14.3 day(-1) (4.2 day(-1) +/- 3.9) for V. cholerae and 0.1 to 9.7 day(-1) (2.2 +/- 2.8 day(-1)) for bacterial assemblage. Our results suggest that dissolved organic matter during intense phytoplankton blooms has the potential to support explosive growth of V. cholerae in seawater. Under the conditions tested, free-living V. cholerae was able to reach concentrations per milliliter that were up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the known minimum infectious dose (10(4) cell ml(-1)) and remained viable under many conditions. If applicable to the complex conditions in marine ecosystems, our results suggest an important role of the growth of free-living V. cholerae in disease propagation and prevention during phytoplankton blooms. (+info)
Acute dehydrating disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 induce increases in innate cells and inflammatory mediators at the mucosal surface of the gut.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The general concept is that as Vibrio cholerae is not invasive, it mediates a non-inflammatory type of infection. This is being re-evaluated based on available data that natural cholera infection or cholera toxin induces a Th2-type of immune profile and stimulates the humoral immune response, innate cells, and mediators in the host. METHODS: To perform a comprehensive analyses of the inflammatory components, we studied mucosal biopsies from patients, both adults and children with acute watery diarrhoea caused by V cholerae O1 and O139. Patients with cholera, adults (n = 30) and children (n = 18), as well as healthy controls (n = 24) were studied. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies were carried out to elucidate the contribution of the different factors using paraffin and frozen duodenal and/or rectal sections as appropriate. Samples were collected during the acute stage and during early and/or late convalescence. RESULTS: Following natural cholera infection, patients responded with increases in neutrophil polymorphs during the acute stage (p<0.001) compared with healthy controls whereas mucosal mast cells (MMC) (p = 0.008) and eosinophils (p = 0.034) increased in the gut during convalescence. Electron microscopic analyses of duodenal biopsies from adult patients showed increased piecemeal degranulation in both MMC and eosinophils and accumulation of lipid bodies in MMC. Duodenal biopsies from V cholerae O1 infected patients showed upregulation of myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, PGHS-1, SCF, tryptase, tumour necrosis factor alpha, alpha-defensin, and eotaxin during the acute stage and chymase, interleukin 3 and major basic protein during convalescence. CONCLUSION: We have shown that innate cells and their mediators are upregulated in acute watery diarrhoea. These cells and factors of the innate arm may be important in the host's defence against cholera. Such effects may need to be simulated in a vaccine to achieve long lasting protection from cholera. (+info)
VpsT is a transcriptional regulator required for expression of vps biosynthesis genes and the development of rugose colonial morphology in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor.
Vibrio cholerae switches between smooth and rugose colonial variants. The rugose variant produces more vibrio polysaccharides (VPS(El Tor)) and forms well-developed biofilms. Both phenotypes depend on expression of vps biosynthesis genes. We identified a positive transcriptional regulator of vps gene expression, VpsT, which is homologous to response regulators of two-component regulatory systems. Disruption of vpsT in the rugose variant yields smooth colonies, prevents formation of mature biofilms, and decreases vps gene expression. The interaction between VpsT and VpsR, a previously identified positive regulator of vps genes, was also investigated. (+info)
Detection of antibodies to toxin-coregulated pili in sera from cholera patients.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) isolated from Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. Despite their limited bactericidal potential, two MAbs were able to mediate biotype-specific protection against experimental cholera in infant mice. These MAbs were used in immunoblotting studies to assess seroconversion to El Tor TCP following cholera. Clear anti-pilus responses were observed in five of nine patients. (+info)
Incomplete correlation of serum vibriocidal antibody titer with protection from Vibrio cholerae infection in urban Bangladesh.
The serum vibriocidal antibody is the only recognized predictor of protection from cholera, but no seroepidemiological data have been gathered since the emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139. We assessed the association between the vibriocidal antibody titer and protection from cholera in an endemic setting. Although a higher baseline vibriocidal titer correlated with protection from V. cholerae O1, infection still developed in some contacts with very high titers. No association between baseline vibriocidal titer and protection from V. cholerae O139 infection was found. Our findings suggest that the vibriocidal antibody is an incomplete predictor of protection from V. cholerae infection. (+info)