Toxin(s), other than cholera toxin, produced by environmental non O1 non O139 Vibrio cholerae.
A total of 39 Vibrio cholerae non O1 non O139 strains were isolated from surface waters of different parts of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. All these strains showed lack of ctx or zot gene, as demonstrated by the PCR analysis. Eighteen representative strains were tested for enterotoxin production using a rabbit ileal loop model, of which live cells of 8 strains and culture filtrates of 6 strains produced fluid accumulation in ileal loops. However, none of them produced heat stable toxin (ST), as detected by suckling mouse assay. On the other hand, 15% of isolates produced cytotoxin as detected by the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell assay. Fifty times concentrated culture filtrates of the representative strains did not give any precipitin band against the anti-cholera toxin, suggesting the strains produced an enterotoxin, which is antigenically different from known cholera toxin (CT). Eighty percent of the total isolates were found to be positive for heat labile haemolysin detected by tube method, whereas, 39% were found positive by the Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP) method. However, 87% of the isolates were positive for haemagglutinin/protease and all of the strains were positive for mannose-sensitive-haemagglutinin assay. (+info)
Distribution of virulence markers in clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000.
One hundred seventy nine Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains from clinical and different environmental sources isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000 were serogrouped and screened for the presence of four different virulence factors. The Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic relatedness among strains. Fifty-four different serogroups were identified and V. cholerae O26 was the most common (7.8%). PCR analysis for three genes (ctxA, zot, ace) located of the CTX genetic element and one gene (tcpA) located on the VPI pathogenicity island showed that 27 strains harbored one or more of these genes. Eight (4.5%) strains possessed the complete set of CTX element genes and all but one of these belonged to the O26 serogroup suggesting that V. cholerae O26 has the potential to be an epidemic strain. The RAPD profiles revealed a wide variability among strains and no genetic correlation was observed. (+info)
Pulmonary cholera due to infection with a non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strain.
We present 2 cases of primary pulmonary non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infection. We believe that these are the first documented cases of primary pulmonary infection due to this organism from a freshwater source. (+info)
Vibrio cholerae non-O1,non-O139 isolated from pleural effusion following total gastrectomy.
We isolated non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae from pleural effusion in a patient with recurred advanced gastric cancer after total gastrectomy. We also recovered the organism from the patient's stool culture. The patient did not experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea except heartburn and epigastric discomfort from stomach cancer before admission. The suspected route of infection is directly from the gastrointestinal tract through the previous surgical wounds. After antibiotic treatment, no more V. cholerae was isolated and the patient was well discharged from the hospital. This is the first report of V. cholerae infection associated with pleural effusion in a long-term latent carrier of the organism. (+info)
Vibrio cholerae strain typing and phylogeny study based on simple sequence repeats.
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera. Its natural reservoir is the aquatic environment. To date, practical typing of V. cholerae is mainly serological and requires about 200 antisera. Simple sequence repeats (SSR), also termed VNTR (for variable number of tandem repeats), provide a source of high genomic polymorphism used in bacterial typing. Here we describe an SSR-based typing method that combines the variation in highly mutable SSR loci, with that of shorter, relatively more stable mononucleotide repeat (MNR) loci, for accurate and rapid typing of V. cholerae. In silico screening of the V. cholerae genome revealed thousands of perfect SSR tracts with an average frequency of one SSR every 152 bp. A panel of 32 V. cholerae strains, representing both clinical and environmental isolates, was tested for polymorphism in SSR loci. Two strategies were applied to identify SSR variation: polymorphism of SSR tracts longer than 12 bp (L-SSR) assessed by capillary fragment-size analysis and MNR polymorphism assessed by sequencing. The nine L-SSR loci tested were all polymorphic, displaying 2 to 13 alleles per locus. Sequence analysis of eight MNR-containing loci (MNR-multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) provided information on both variations in the MNR tract itself, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in their flanking sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined SSR data showed a clear discrimination between the clinical strains belonging to O1 and O139 serogroups, and the environmental isolates. Furthermore, discrimination between 27 strains of the 32 strains was achieved. SSR-based typing methods combining L-SSR and MNR-MLST were found to be efficient for V. cholerae typing. (+info)
The genome of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S demonstrates the presence of pathogenic mechanisms that are distinct from those of O1 Vibrio cholerae.
Vibrio cholerae NRT36S is a non-cholera toxin-producing, non-O1 strain that causes diarrhea in volunteers. The genome of NRT36S was sequenced to create a draft containing 174 contigs plus the superintegron region. Our analysis of the draft genome revealed several putative toxin genes and colonization factors. Besides confirming the existence of nonagglutinable heat-stable toxin, we also identified the genes for a type three secretion system, a putative exotoxin, two different RTX toxins, and four pilus systems. (+info)
The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S: genes are embedded in the LPS region.
BACKGROUND: In V. cholerae, the biogenesis of capsule polysaccharide is poorly understood. The elucidation of capsule structure and biogenesis is critical to understanding the evolution of surface polysaccharide and the internal relationship between the capsule and LPS in this species. V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. Here, we report the covalent structure and studies of the biogenesis of the capsule in V. cholerae NRT36S. RESULTS: The structure of the capsular (CPS) polysaccharide was determined by high resolution NMR spectroscopy and shown to be a complex structure with four residues in the repeating subunit. The gene cluster of capsule biogenesis was identified by transposon mutagenesis combined with whole genome sequencing data (GenBank accession DQ915177). The capsule gene cluster shared the same genetic locus as that of the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biogenesis gene cluster. Other than V. cholerae O139, this is the first V. cholerae CPS for which a structure has been fully elucidated and the genetic locus responsible for biosynthesis identified. CONCLUSION: The co-location of CPS and LPS biosynthesis genes was unexpected, and would provide a mechanism for simultaneous emergence of new O and K antigens in a single strain. This, in turn, may be a key element for V. cholerae to evolve new strains that can escape immunologic detection by host populations. (+info)
Three pathogenicity islands of Vibrio cholerae can excise from the chromosome and form circular intermediates.
Vibrio pathogenicity island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57-kb region integrated at a transfer RNA (tRNA)-serine locus that encompasses VC1758 to VC1809 on the V. cholerae N16961 genome and is present in pandemic isolates. VPI-2 encodes a P4-like integrase, a restriction modification system, a Mu phage-like region, and a sialic acid metabolism region, as well as neuraminidase (VC1784), which is a glycosylhydrolase known to release sialic acid from sialoglycoconjugates to unmask GM1 gangliosides, the receptor for cholera toxin. We examined the tRNA-serine locus among the sequenced V. cholerae genomes and identified five variant VPI-2 regions, four of which retained the sialometabolism region. Three variant VPI-2 regions contained a type three secretion system. By using an inverse nested PCR approach, we found that the VPI-2 region can form an extrachromosomal circular intermediate (CI) molecule after precise excision from its tRNA-serine attachment site. We constructed a knockout mutant of VC1758 (int) with V. cholerae strain N16961 and found that no excision PCR product was produced, indicating that a functional cognate, VPI-2 integrase, is required for excision. The Vibrio seventh pandemic island-I (VSP-I) and VSP-II regions are present in V. cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 serogroup isolates. Novel regions are present at the VSP-I insertion site in strain MZO-3 and at the VSP-II insertion site in strain 623-39. VSP-II is a 27-kb region that integrates at a tRNA-methionine locus, is flanked by direct repeats, and encodes a P4-like integrase. We show that VSP-II can excise and form a CI and that the cognate VSP-II integrase is required for excision. Interestingly, VSP-I is not inserted at a tRNA locus and does encode a XerDC-like recombinase, but similar to VPI-2 and VSP-II, VSP-I does excise from the genome to form a CI. These results show that all three pathogenicity islands can excise from the chromosome, which is likely a first step in their horizontal transfer. (+info)