Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Vibrio iliopiscarius (Onarheim et al. 1994) and proposal for Photobacterium iliopiscarium comb. nov.
The phylogenetic position of Vibrio iliopiscarius was inferred by the maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony and neighbour-joining methods on the basis of almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that this species falls into the same cluster as Photobacterium species and is clearly distinct from other Vibrio species. Its nearest phylogenetic neighbour is Photobacterium phosphoreum. From these results, it is concluded that V. iliopiscarius should be reclassified as Photobacterium iliopiscarium comb. nov., the type strain of which is PS1T (= ATCC 51760T). (+info)
Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish.
To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont. (+info)
Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E).
Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs. (+info)
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and other vibrio species.
Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed for use in detecting V. vulnificus, as well as other members of the genus Vibrio. The resulting RAPD profiles were analyzed by using RFLPScan software. This RAPD method clearly differentiated between members of the genus Vibrio and between isolates of V. vulnificus. Each V. vulnificus strain produced a unique band pattern, indicating that the members of this species are genetically quite heterogeneous. All of the vibrios were found to have amplification products whose sizes were within four common molecular weight ranges, while the V. vulnificus strains had an additional two molecular weight range bands in common. All of the V. vulnificus strains isolated from clinical specimens produced an additional band that was only occasionally found in environmental strains; this suggests that, as is the case with the Kanagawa hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the presence of this band may be correlated with the ability of a strain to produce an infection in humans. In addition, band pattern differences were observed between encapsulated and nonencapsulated isogenic morphotypes of the same strain of V. vulnificus. (+info)
Arbitrarily primed PCR to type Vibrio spp. pathogenic for shrimp.
A molecular typing study on Vibrio strains implicated in shrimp disease outbreaks in New Caledonia and Japan was conducted by using AP-PCR (arbitrarily primed PCR). It allowed rapid identification of isolates at the genospecies level and studies of infraspecific population structures of epidemiological interest. Clusters identified within the species Vibrio penaeicida were related to their area of origin, allowing discrimination between Japanese and New Caledonian isolates, as well as between those from two different bays in New Caledonia separated by only 50 km. Other subclusters of New Caledonian V. penaeicida isolates could be identified, but it was not possible to link those differences to accurate epidemiological features. This contribution of AP-PCR to the study of vibriosis in penaeid shrimps demonstrates its high discriminating power and the relevance of the epidemiological information provided. This approach would contribute to better knowledge of the ecology of Vibrio spp. and their implication in shrimp disease in aquaculture. (+info)
Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E from aquatic habitats in Taiwan.
The existence of strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E that are avirulent for eels is reported in this work. These isolates were recovered from water and oysters and differed from eel virulent strains in (i) fermentation and utilization of mannitol, (ii) ribotyping after HindIII digestion, and (iii) susceptibility to eel serum. Lipopolysaccharide of these strains lacked the highest molecular weight immunoreactive bands, which are probably involved in serum resistance. (+info)
Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock.
The mechanosensitive channel with large conductance of Escherichia coli is the first to be cloned among stretch-activated channels. Although its activity was characterized by a patch clamp method, a physiological role of the channel has not been proved. The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, is sensitive to osmotic stress and cell lysis occurs under osmotic downshock. We introduced an mscL gene into Vibrio alginolyticus, and the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance functions was found to alleviate cell lysis by osmotic downshock. This is the first report to show a physiological role of the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance. (+info)
The polar flagellar motor of Vibrio cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force.
Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We examined the Na+ dependence and the sensitivity to the Na+ motor-specific inhibitor of the motility of the V. cholerae strains and present the evidence that the polar flagellar motor of V. cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force. (+info)