Traumatic vasospastic disease in chain-saw operators.
Raynaud's phenomenon is commonly induced in chain-saw operators by vibration; the hand guiding the tool is the more severely affected. The condition tends to persist after use of the chain-saw is stopped but compensation is rarely sought. Among 17 cases of Raynaud's phenomenon in lumberjacks the condition was found to be related to use of the chain-saw in 14, 10 of whom had to give up their work in colder weather because the disease was so disabling. Two criteria essential to establish the condition as vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon are the presence of symptoms for at least 2 years and a history of at least 1 year's constant use of the chain-saw. Careful physical examination and simple tests of vascular function will provide objective evidence of permanent damage by which the patients may be classified and compensated. (+info)
Mechanical stimulation of starfish sperm flagella.
1. The responses of starfish sperm flagella to mechanical stimulation with a microneedle were analysed. Flagellar movement was recorded by high-speed microcinematography and by stroboscopic observation. 2. The amplitude of the bending wave of a flagellum was restricted over its entire length when the microneedle was brought near to the flagellum at its proximal region. Beyond the restricted part, the amplitude of the wave, and the bend angle, became smaller than those of a normally beating flagellum, while the curvature was practically unchanged. 3. When the tip of the microneedle was in contact with the flagellum, propagation of the bending wave beyond the microneedle was inhibited. The part of the flagellum between the base and the microneedle continued beating in some cases and stopped beating in other cases. The flagellum beyond the arrested part stopped beating and remained straight. When the microneedle was removed, the bending wave which existed in the part of the flagellum proximal to the microneedle, or the wave which was passively formed de novo at the time of the removal of the microneedle, propagated over the arrested part towards the tip. 4. A flagellum amputated by a microneedle in a medium containing ATP continued beating with a small amplitude, small curvature, small bend angle and low frequency. When the amputated flagellum was passively bent by a microneedle at the region near the point of amputation, this bend propagated towards the tip with a constant bend angle. 5. The beating frequency of the flagellum could be modulated by the application of a rhythmic external force generated by vibrating a microneedle near the flagellum. The beating was completely synchronized with vibration of the microneedle in the frequency range from 23 Hz to 43 Hz. (+info)
The two-dimensional IR nonlinear spectroscopy of a cyclic penta-peptide in relation to its three-dimensional structure.
A form of two-dimensional (2D) vibrational spectroscopy, which uses two ultrafast IR laser pulses, is used to examine the structure of a cyclic penta-peptide in solution. Spectrally resolved cross peaks occur in the off-diagonal region of the 2D IR spectrum of the amide I region, analogous to those in 2D NMR spectroscopy. These cross peaks measure the coupling between the different amide groups in the structure. Their intensities and polarizations relate directly to the three-dimensional structure of the peptide. With the help of a model coupling Hamiltonian, supplemented by density functional calculations, the spectra of this penta-peptide can be regenerated from the known solution phase structure. This 2D-IR measurement, with an intrinsic time resolution of less than 1 ps, could be used in all time regimes of interest in biology. (+info)
A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise.
To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body. (+info)
Brief vibrotactile stimulation does not increase cortical oxygen consumption when measured by single inhalation of positron emitting oxygen.
Vibrotactile stimulation of the hand elicits no increase in oxygen consumption commensurate with the increase in blood flow measured in human sensory cortex. To test the hypothesis that previous failures to detect a proportionate increase in oxygen consumption could be an artefact of the sequential bolus, or three-step, method used to measure this parameter in the human brain in vivo, the authors compared the measurements with the results of a novel single bolus, or one-step, method of measuring oxygen consumption. The time of completion of the three-step method was 40 to 50 minutes, whereas the one-step method lasted only 3 minutes. The baseline whole-brain oxygen consumption averaged 185 +/- 32 micromol hg(-1) min(-1) by the three-step method and 153 +/- 15 micromol hg(-1) min(-1) by the one-step method. Vibrotactile stimulation did not elicit a significant increase in oxygen consumption measured by either method. This finding rejects the hypothesis that failure to detect an increase of oxygen consumption could be an artefact caused by limitations of the method used previously. Conversely, it also rejects the hypothesis that observations of an increase of oxygen consumption by the new method are artefacts caused by limitations of the one-step method. (+info)
Oxygen consumption of cerebral cortex fails to increase during continued vibrotactile stimulation.
The coupling of oxidative metabolism to the blood flow of the sensory motor hand area is uncertain. The authors tested the hypothesis that continued vibrotactile stimulation ultimately must lead to increased oxygen consumption consumption. Twenty-two healthy right-handed young volunteers underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with the [(15)O]water bolus injection method to measure water clearance (K1H2O an index of blood flow (CBF), and with the [(15)O]oxygen bolus inhalation method to measure CMR(O2). The CMR(O2) was measured 30 seconds and 20 minutes after onset of intermittent (1 second on, 1 second off) vibrotactile stimulation (110 Hz) and compared with baseline measurements without stimulation. The K1H2O and CMR(O2) changes (delta K1H2O and delta CMR(O2)) were determined using intersubject averaging, together with magnetic resonance imaging based stereotaxic registration technique. The K1H2O increase was 21 +/- 4% and 12 +/- 4% at 30 seconds and 20 minutes after onset of stimulation, respectively. No significant increase of CMR(O2) was found until 30 minutes after the onset of stimulation. The authors conclude that blood flow and oxidative metabolism undergo uncoupling during sustained phasic stimulation of the sensory hand area. Therefore, neuronal activity stimulated in this manner does not rely on significantly increased oxidative phosphorylation. (+info)
Inhalation exposure of animals.
Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. (+info)
Possible sources of discrepancies in the use of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Impact on prevalence of insensate foot and workload requirements.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different testing sites and buckling strengths on the sensitivity and specificity of using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament to detect patients with insensate foot. The impact on workload required to educate and follow up these high-risk individuals was estimated by modeling in our patient population with a documented status of neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the 5.07/10-g monofilament, one observer tested 132 randomly selected subjects with diabetes at five sites on the right foot. The sensitivity and specificity of each site and combinations of sites in detecting vibration perception threshold > 40 was calculated. In addition, two monofilaments, one with a buckling force of 5 g and the other with a force of 15 g, were compared by testing 200 randomly selected patients. An estimate of the prevalence of insensate foot and workload was made by modeling the findings to the 5,270 patients with neuropathy status registered on our computerized database. RESULTS: Specificity of the 5.07/10-g monofilament to detect insensate foot at each of the five sites is high, at approximately 90%, but there is considerably more variation and lower sensitivity, ranging from 44-71%. Data derived from the use of different combinations of sites showed that more stringent criteria are associated with lower sensitivity but higher specificity. If the foot is considered insensate when either of sites 3 and 4 (plantar aspect of the first and fifth metatarsal heads, respectively) cannot feel the monofilament, there is reasonable sensitivity and specificity (80-86%, respectively). By modeling on our diabetes center population, it can be demonstrated that the choice of different methodologies leads to different conclusions about the prevalence of severe neuropathy, ranging from 3.4 to 29.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of sites 3 and 4 for monofilament testing gives a reasonable compromise for time, sensitivity, and specificity. Minor changes in sensitivity and specificity can lead to major changes in the prevalence of neuropathy, with implications for workload. (+info)