Treatment of hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis by use of shunting.
Hydrocephalus can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cryptococcal meningitis if left untreated. Both ventriculoperitoneal and ventriculoatrial shunting have been used in persons with cryptococcosis complicated by hydrocephalus, but the indications for and complications, success, and timing of these interventions are not well known. To this end, we reviewed the clinical courses of 10 non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis who underwent shunting procedures. Nine of 10 patients who underwent shunting had noticeable improvement in dementia and gait. Two patients required late revision of their shunts. Shunt placement in eight patients with acute infection did not disseminate cryptococcal infection into the peritoneum or bloodstream, nor did shunting provide a nidus from which Cryptococcus organisms proved difficult to eradicate. Shunting procedures are a safe and effective therapy for hydrocephalus in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and need not be delayed until patients are mycologically cured. (+info)
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
A 79-year-old woman suffering from urinary incontinence and unsteady gait was diagnosed as having idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) with hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The concentration of antidiuretic hormone was high while the plasma osmolality was low in the presence of concentrated urine during the episodes of hyponatremia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, the symptoms of NPH and hyponatremia improved. It may be possibly explained that mechanical pressure on the hypothalamus from the third ventricle is responsible for hyponatremia. (+info)
Migration of the abdominal catheter of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the scrotum--case report.
A 3-day-old male neonate presented with migration of the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt tip through the patent processus vaginalis resulting in scrotal hydrocele. The association of myelomeningocele with hydrocephalus may have been a predisposing factor in this rare complication. Development of scrotal swelling or hydrocele in a child with VP shunt should be recognized as a possible shunt complication. (+info)
Reduction cranioplasty for macrocephaly. Two case reports.
Multi-stage reduction cranioplasty was performed on two children with severe macrocephaly secondary to hydrocephalus. One patient underwent a four-stage operation, and the other underwent a two-stage operation. The postoperative course of both patients was uneventful. Reduction cranioplasty improved quality of life for both patients, and good cosmetic results were achieved. Reduction cranioplasty is effective for the treatment of macrocephaly, and multi-stage surgery can reduce the associated risks. (+info)
Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with occipital meningocele and spinal lipoma--case report.
A neonate presented with Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with occipital meningocele and spinal lipoma, manifesting as soft masses on the skull and lumbosacral regions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large posterior fossa cyst between the fourth ventricle and occipital meningocele, but the aqueduct was patent and there was no sign of hydrocephalus. A cyst-peritoneal shunt was emplaced at the age of 8 days followed by partial removal of the spinal lipoma and untethering of the cord at the 3 months. Follow-up examination of age 3 years found almost normal development, although the cyst still persisted. (+info)
Clinical course, surgical management, and long-term outcome of moyamoya patients with rebleeding after an episode of intracerebral hemorrhage: An extensive follow-Up study.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Revascularization surgery for moyamoya patients is believed to prevent cerebral ischemic attacks by improving cerebral blood flow. However, measures preventing the occurrence of hemorrhagic moyamoya in patients have not yet been established in the literature due to the low rate of hemorrhage onset as well as the originally limited numbers of patients with moyamoya disease, poor understanding of the clinical course of rebleeding, correct surgical management, and long-term outcome. We present here the results of an overall survey of patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease in a district of Miyagi Prefecture in Japan and examine their clinical course, efficacy of revascularization surgery, and long-term outcome. METHODS: This study included 28 moyamoya patients with episodes of intracranial hemorrhage between 1976 and 1988. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 years. There were 4 males and 24 females, aged 7 to 69 years (mean 39.2 years). Cerebral angiography and CT scans were performed for all patients. Surgical treatment was performed in 19 patients (67. 9%), and 10 patients (35.7%) underwent revascularization surgery. We observed the clinical course of all 28 patients. We also studied the relationship between the efficacy of surgical treatment and long-term outcome. RESULTS: Five of the 28 patients (17.9%) died of the initial intracranial hemorrhage, and 2 patients died of other causes. Rebleeding occurred in 6 of the remaining 21 patients (28. 6%). The interval to rebleeding ranged from 2 to 20 years (mean 7.3 years). Of these 6 patients, 4 died of rebleeding. Rebleeding was observed in 1 of 8 patients who underwent bypass surgery and in 5 of 13 patients who did not, which suggested that rebleeding was less likely to occur in patients who had undergone bypass surgery. However, there was no significant difference in rebleeding ratio or mortality between patients with and those without revascularization surgery (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we compiled the results of meticulous follow-up conducted over the past 10 years for patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. Because hemorrhagic moyamoya disease is known for its high rate of mortality at the time of rebleeding and often causes rebleeding long after the initial episode (as much as 20 years later), implementation of long-term preventive measures for rebleeding is necessary. This suggests that a long-term prospective study of a large number of patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease is required to determine whether bypass surgery prevents rebleeding of hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. (+info)
Comparison of lumbar and shunt cerebrospinal fluid specimens for cytologic detection of leptomeningeal disease in pediatric patients with brain tumors.
PURPOSE: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) significantly affects the prognosis and treatment of pediatric patients with primary CNS tumors. Cytologic examination of lumbar CSF is routinely used to detect LMD. To determine whether examination of CSF obtained from ventricular shunt taps is a more sensitive method of detecting LMD in these patients, we designed a prospective study to compare the findings of cytologic examinations of CSF obtained from concurrent lumbar and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt taps. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As a part of diagnostic staging, follow-up testing, or both, 52 consecutive patients underwent concurrent lumbar and shunt taps on 90 separate occasions, ranging from the time of diagnosis to treatment follow-up. CSF from both sites was examined cytologically for malignant cells. RESULTS: The median age of the 28 males and 24 females was 7.5 years (range, 0.6 to 21.4 years). The primary CNS tumors included medulloblastoma (n = 29), astrocytoma (n = 10), ependymoma (n = 5), germinoma (n = 3), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 2), choroid plexus carcinoma (n = 2), and pineoblastoma (n = 1). Each site yielded a median CSF volume of 1.0 mL. Fourteen of 90 paired CSF test results were discordant: in 12, the cytologic findings from shunt CSF were negative for malignant cells, but those from lumbar CSF were positive; in two, the reverse was true. Malignant cells were detected at a higher rate in lumbar CSF than in shunt CSF (P =.0018). When repeat analyses were excluded, examination of lumbar CSF remained significantly more sensitive in detecting malignant cells (P =.011). Analysis of the subset of patients with embryonal tumors showed similar results (P =.0008). CONCLUSION: Cytologic examination of lumbar CSF is clearly superior to cytologic examination of VP shunt CSF for detecting leptomeningeal metastases in pediatric patients with primary CNS tumors. (+info)
Endoscopic aqueductal plasty via the fourth ventricle through the cerebellar hemisphere under navigating system guidance--technical note.
A 1-year 8-month-old boy presented with isolated fourth ventricle after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus associated with ventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The therapeutic endoscope was inserted through the thin left cerebellar hemisphere. Endoscopic aqueductal plasty was performed via the enlarged fourth ventricle under guidance from a navigating system. Endoscopic aqueductal plasty via the fourth ventricle under navigating system guidance is a useful procedure enabling less invasive surgery for isolated fourth ventricle associated with slit-like ventricle after shunt placement. (+info)