(1/2864) Myocardial oxygenation during high work states in hearts with postinfarction remodeling.
BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen availability is the basis for these HEP abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation in swine. Studies were performed in 20 normal animals, 14 animals with compensated LVR, and 9 animals with CHF. Phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP was determined with 31P NMR and deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) with 1H NMR in myocardium remote from the infarct. Basal PCr/ATP tended to be decreased in postinfarct hearts, and this was significant in animals with CHF. Infusion of dobutamine (20 microg x kg-1 x min-1 IV) caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in both normal and LVR hearts and resulted in comparable significant decreases of PCr/ATP in both groups. This decrease in PCr/ATP was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. In CHF hearts, rate-pressure product increased only 40% in response to dobutamine; this attenuated response also was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the decrease of PCr/ATP during dobutamine infusion is not the result of insufficient myocardial oxygen availability. Furthermore, in CHF hearts, the low basal PCr/ATP and the attenuated response to dobutamine occurred in the absence of myocardial hypoxia, indicating that the HEP and contractile abnormalities were not the result of insufficient oxygen availability. (+info)
(2/2864) Myocardial creatine kinase kinetics in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling.
This study examined whether alterations in myocardial creatine kinase (CK) kinetics and high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels occur in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR). Myocardial HEP and CK kinetics were examined in 19 pigs 6 wk after myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation, and the results were compared with those from 9 normal pigs. Blood flow (microspheres), oxygen consumption (MVO2), HEP levels [31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)], and CK kinetics (31P MRS) were measured in myocardium remote from the infarct under basal conditions and during dobutamine infusion (20 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv). Six of the pigs with LVR had overt congestive heart failure (CHF) at the time of study. Under basal conditions, creatine phosphate (CrP)-to-ATP ratios were lower in all transmural layers of hearts with CHF and in the subendocardium of LVR hearts than in normal hearts (P < 0.05). Myocardial ATP (biopsy) was significantly decreased in hearts with CHF. The CK forward rate constant was lower (P < 0.05) in the CHF group (0.21 +/- 0.03 s-1) than in LVR (0.38 +/- 0.04 s-1) or normal groups (0.41 +/- 0.03 s-1); CK forward flux rates in CHF, LVR, and normal groups were 6.4 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.1, and 20.3 +/- 2.4 micromol. g-1. s-1, respectively (P < 0.05, CHF vs. LVR and LVR vs. normal). Dobutamine caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in the LVR and normal groups, whereas CHF hearts failed to respond to dobutamine. CK flux rates did not change during dobutamine in any group. The ratios of CK flux to ATP synthesis (from MVO2) under baseline conditions were 10.9 +/- 1.2, 8. 03 +/- 0.9, and 3.86 +/- 0.5 for normal, LVR, and CHF hearts, respectively (each P < 0.05); during dobutamine, this ratio decreased to 3.73 +/- 0.5, 2.58 +/- 0.4, and 2.78 +/- 0.5, respectively (P = not significant among groups). These data demonstrate that CK flux rates are decreased in hearts with postinfarction LVR, but this change does not limit the response to dobutamine. In hearts with end-stage CHF, the changes in HEP and CK flux are more marked. These changes could contribute to the decreased responsiveness of these hearts to dobutamine. (+info)
(3/2864) Nicotine-modified postinfarction left ventricular remodeling.
Cigarette smoking has been noted to impair wound healing in tissues such as skin, bone, and gut. This study was designed to examine whether nicotine adversely affects postinfarction cardiac wound healing and remodeling in an experimental model of myocardial infarction. For this purpose, two groups of rats were studied. The control group received a simple bandage, and the nicotine group had a section (1.75 mg/day) of a nicotine patch attached on their backs. After a 7-day treatment period, an anterior wall infarction was induced. A bandage-free 7-day healing period followed, after which hearts were isolated for mechanical tests. Nicotine-treated rats developed significantly enlarged left ventricles with thin, infarcted walls and a rightward shift in the passive pressure-volume relationship. Pressure-strain analysis also indicated possible changes in the material properties of the wound for nicotine-treated rats. In conclusion, nicotine has significant adverse effects on postinfarction healing and left ventricular remodeling. These observations have important clinical implications because of the enhanced risk for development of heart failure. (+info)
(4/2864) Endothelin system-dependent cardiac remodeling in renovascular hypertension.
The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the cardiac endothelin system contributes to cardiac remodeling in rats with 2-kidney, 1 clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension. The endothelin system seems to be a promising candidate for cardiac remodeling because endothelin (ET)-1 promotes growth of cardiomyocytes in vitro and induces cardiac collagen synthesis. The activity of the cardiac endothelin system was analyzed by measuring cardiac tissue big ET-1 and ET-1 concentrations as well as by estimating the cardiac expression of the ETA and ETB receptors 10 days, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after the renal artery was clipped. The effects of long-term treatment with ETA, ETB, and combined ETA/ETB receptor antagonists on cardiac hypertrophy, media/lumen ratio of intracardiac arteries, and left ventricular fibrosis were also analyzed. This study demonstrated that the overall left ventricular cardiac endothelin system has a similar activity in the early, middle, and late stages of 2K1C renovascular hypertension compared with sham-operated controls. Fibrosis of the left ventricle and hypertrophy of intracardiac arteries, however, were markedly altered after long-term treatment with endothelin receptor antagonists in a blood pressure-independent manner. These 2 effects are mediated by different subtypes of endothelin receptors. ETA receptor blockade completely normalized the hypertrophy of intracardiac arteries (P<0. 01 compared with 2K1C without treatment) in renovascular hypertension, whereas the ETB antagonist reduced cardiac fibrosis of the left ventricle (P<0.001 compared with 2K1C without treatment) to baseline values. This study demonstrates that the cardiac endothelin system plays an important role in the development of cardiac fibrosis as well as in hypertrophy of intracardiac arteries in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats. (+info)
(5/2864) Decreased left ventricular filling pressure 8 months after corrective surgery in a 55-year-old man with tetralogy of Fallot: adaptation for increased preload.
A 55-year-old man with tetralogy of Fallot underwent corrective surgery. Left ventricular filling pressure increased markedly with increased left ventricular volume one month after surgery, then decreased over the next 7 months, presumably due to increased left ventricular compliance. (+info)
(6/2864) Beneficial effect of myocardial angiogenesis on cardiac remodeling process by amlodipine and MCI-154.
The present study examined the effect of long-term treatment with amlodipine and MCI-154 (a Ca2+ sensitizer) on progressive cardiac dysfunction and microvasculature in the dilated cardiomyopathic (DCM) hamster heart. After treatment of DCM hamsters (Bio 53.58) with amlodipine or MCI-154 for 15 wk from the age of 5 wk, amlodipine and MCI-154 were found to cause an increase in left ventricular percent fractional shortening and decreases in left ventricular diastolic dimension and isovolumic relaxation time in echocardiograms (P < 0.01). A hemodynamic study showed that the diastolic time constant decreased in the amlodipine-treatment group (P < 0.05). In a morphometric study employing a double-staining method that discriminated arteriolar and venular capillaries, amlodipine and MCI-154 caused increases in total capillary density (P < 0.05) and the proportion of venular capillaries (P < 0.05). Moreover, Northern blot analysis showed that the expression of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly increased by amlodipine and MCI-154. They preserve coronary microvasculature in the DCM hamster and might induce angiogenesis of small vessels, thereby contributing to preservation of cardiac systolic and diastolic function. (+info)
(7/2864) Effects of AT1-receptor blockade on progression of left ventricular dysfunction in dogs with heart failure.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of early long-term monotherapy with the angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist valsartan on the progression of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and remodeling in dogs with moderate heart failure (HF). Studies were performed in 30 dogs with moderate HF produced by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. Embolizations were discontinued when LV ejection fraction was 30-40%. Two weeks after the last embolization, dogs were randomized to 3 mo of oral therapy with low-dose valsartan (400 mg twice daily, n = 10), to high-dose valsartan (800 mg twice daily, n = 10), or to no treatment at all (control, n = 10). Treatment with valsartan significantly reduced mean aortic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure compared with control. In untreated dogs, LV ejection fraction decreased (37 +/- 1 vs. 29 +/- 1%, P = 0.001) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) increased (81 +/- 5 vs. 92 +/- 5 ml, P < 0.001; 51 +/- 3 vs. 65 +/- 3 ml, P = 0.001, respectively) after 3 mo of follow-up compared with those levels before follow-up. In dogs treated for 3 mo with low-dose valsartan, ejection fraction was preserved (37 +/- 1 vs. 38 +/- 2%, pretreatment vs. posttreatment) as was ESV but not EDV. In dogs treated for 3 mo with high-dose valsartan, ejection fraction decreased (35 +/- 1 vs. 31 +/- 2%, P = 0.02) and ESV and EDV increased in a manner comparable to those levels in controls. Valsartan had no significant effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy or on the extent of interstitial fibrosis. We conclude that, for dogs with moderate HF, early long-term therapy with the AT1-receptor blocker valsartan decreases preload and afterload but has only limited benefits in attenuating the progression of LV dysfunction and chamber remodeling. (+info)
(8/2864) Ventricular dilatation in the absence of ACE inhibitors: influence of haemodynamic and neurohormonal variables following myocardial infarction.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between patterns of ventricular remodelling and haemodynamic and neurohormonal variables, at rest and during symptom limited exercise, in the year following acute myocardial infarction in patients not receiving angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. PATIENTS: 65 patients recruited following hospital admission with a transmural anterior myocardial infarction. METHODS: Central haemodynamics and neurohormonal activation at rest and during symptom limited treadmill exercise were measured at baseline before hospital discharge, one month later, and at three monthly intervals thereafter. PATIENTS were classified according to individual patterns of change in left ventricular end diastolic volumes at rest, assessed at each visit using transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: In most patients (n = 43, 66%) ventricular volumes were unchanged or reduced. Mean (SEM) treadmill exercise capacity and peak exercise cardiac index increased at month 12 by 200 (24) seconds (p < 0.001 v baseline) and by 0.8 (0.4) l/min/m2 (p<0.05 v baseline), respectively, in this group. In patients with limited ventricular dilatation (n = 11, 17%) exercise capacity increased by 259 (52) seconds (p < 0.001 v baseline) and peak exercise cardiac index improved by 0.8 (0.7) l/min/m2 (NS). In the remaining 11 patients with progressive left ventricular dilatation, exercise capacity increased by 308 (53) seconds (p< 0. 001 v baseline) and peak exercise cardiac index similarly improved by 1.3 (0.7) l/min/m2 (NS). There were trends towards increased atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) secretion at rest and at peak exercise in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Ventricular dilatation after acute myocardial infarction is a heterogeneous process that is progressive in only a minority of patients. Compensatory mechanisms, including ANF release, appear capable of maintaining and improving exercise capacity in most patients for at least 12 months, even in those with a progressive increase in ventricular size. (+info)