Caval contribution to flow in the branch pulmonary arteries of Fontan patients with a novel application of magnetic resonance presaturation pulse.
BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of fluid mechanics in Fontan physiology includes knowledge of the caval contributions to right (RPA) and left (LPA) pulmonary arterial blood flow, total systemic venous return, and relative blood flow to each lung. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten Fontan patients underwent cine MRI. Three cine scans of the pulmonary arteries were performed: (1) no presaturation pulse, (2) a presaturation pulse labeling inferior vena cava (IVC) blood (signal void), and (3) a presaturation pulse labeling superior vena cava (SVC) blood. The relative signal decrease is proportional to the amount of blood originating from the labeled vena cava. This method was validated in a phantom. Whereas 60+/-6% of SVC blood flowed into the RPA, 67+/-12% of IVC blood flowed toward the LPA. Of the blood in the LPA and RPA, 48+/-14% and 31+/-17%, respectively, came from the IVC. IVC blood contributed 40+/-16% to total systemic venous return. The distributions of blood to each lung were nearly equal (RPA/LPA blood=0.94+/-11). CONCLUSIONS: In Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connection, SVC blood is directed toward the RPA and IVC blood is directed toward the LPA. Although the right lung volume is larger than the left, an equal amount of blood flow went to both lungs. LPA blood is composed of equal amounts of IVC and SVC blood because IVC contribution to total systemic venous return is smaller than that of the SVC. This technique and these findings can help to evaluate design changes of the systemic venous pathway to improve Fontan hemodynamics. (+info)
Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option.
PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed. (+info)
Pulmonary and caval flow dynamics after total cavopulmonary connection.
OBJECTIVE: To assess flow dynamics after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital. PATIENTS: Seven patients (mean age 9 (4-18) years) who had previously undergone a lateral tunnel TCPC mean 2 (0. 3-5) years earlier. INTERVENTIONS: Pressure recordings (cardiac catheterisation), flow volume, and temporal changes of flow in the lateral tunnel, superior vena cava, and right and left pulmonary arteries (magnetic resonance velocity mapping). RESULTS: Superior vena cava flow was similar to lateral tunnel flow (1.7 (0.6-1.9) v 1. 3 (0.9-2.4) l/min*m2) (NS), and right pulmonary artery flow was higher than left pulmonary artery flow (1.7 (0.6-4.3) v 1.1 (0.8-2. 5) l/min*m2, p < 0.05). The flow pulsatility index was highest in the lateral tunnel (2.0 (1.1-8.5)), lowest in the superior vena cava (0.8 (0.5-2.4)), and intermediate in the left and right pulmonary arteries (1.6 (0.9-2.0) and 1.2 (0.4-1.9), respectively). Flow and pressure waveforms were biphasic with maxima in atrial systole and late ventricular systole. CONCLUSIONS: Following a standard lateral tunnel TCPC, flow returning via the superior vena cava is not lower than flow returning via the inferior vena cava as otherwise seen in healthy subjects; flow distribution to the pulmonary arteries is optimal; and some pulsatility is preserved primarily in the lateral tunnel and the corresponding pulmonary artery. This study provides in vivo data for future in vitro and computer model studies. (+info)
Narrowing of the superior vena cava-right atrium junction during radiofrequency catheter ablation for inappropriate sinus tachycardia: analysis with intracardiac echocardiography.
OBJECTIVES: The study explored the potential for tissue swelling and venous occlusion during radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation procedures using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). BACKGROUND: Transient superior vena cava occlusion has been reported following catheter ablation procedures for inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST). Presumably, venous occlusion could occur owing to thrombus formation or tissue swelling with resultant narrowing of the superior vena cava-right atrial (SVC-RA) junction. METHODS: Intracardiac echocardiography (9 MHz) was used to guide ablation catheter position and for continuous monitoring during RF application in 13 ablation procedures in 10 patients with IST. The SVC-RA junction was measured prior to and following ablation. Successful ablation was marked by abrupt reduction in the sinus rate and a change to a superiorly directed p-wave axis. RESULTS: Eleven of 13 procedures were successful, requiring 29 +/- 20 RF lesions. Prior to the delivery of RF lesions, the SVC-RA junction measured 16.4 +/- 2.9 mm. With RF delivery, local and circumferential swelling was observed, causing progressive reduction in the diameter of the SVC-RA junction to 12.6 +/- 3.3 mm (24% reduction, p = 0.0001). A reduction in SVC-RA orifice diameter of > or = 30% compared to baseline was observed in five patients. CONCLUSIONS: The delivery of multiple RF ablation lesions, often necessary for cure of IST, can cause considerable atrial swelling and resultant narrowing of the SVC-RA junction. Smaller venous structures, such as the coronary sinus and the pulmonary veins, would also be expected to be vulnerable to this complication. Thus, ICE imaging may be helpful in preventing excessive tissue swelling leading to venous occlusion during catheter ablation procedures. (+info)
Bubble contrast echocardiography in detecting pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in children with univentricular heart after cavopulmonary anastomosis.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare bubble contrast echocardiography and pulmonary angiography in detecting pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) in children with cavopulmonary anastomosis (CPA), and to examine anatomic and physiologic variables associated with the development of PAVM. BACKGROUND: Development of PAVM in patients with CPA may cause profound cyanosis. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation has been traditionally diagnosed by pulmonary angiography with reported incidence of 20% to 25% in patients with CPA. METHODS: Fourteen patients (age 1.1 to 12.6 years) with any forms of CPA and normal pulmonary venous drainage formed the study population. All patients underwent cardiac catheterization and pulmonary angiography. Bubble contrast echocardiographic studies were performed with injection of 10 ml of agitated saline solution into branch pulmonary arteries. Transthoracic echocardiograms using an apical view were performed to assess the appearance of bubble contrast in the systemic ventricles. We compared the results of pulmonary angiograms and contrast echocardiograms, and findings of contrast echocardiograms between lungs with hepatic venous blood flow and lungs without hepatic venous blood. RESULTS: Ten of the 14 patients (71%) had positive contrast echocardiographic studies, compared with three (21%) detected by pulmonary angiograms (p = 0.01). No difference was found in pulmonary artery pressure, transpulmonary gradient or presence of heterotaxy syndrome between patients with positive contrast echocardiographic studies and patients with negative studies. However, patients with positive contrast echocardiograms tended to have lower oxygen saturation (81%) and higher hemoglobin (16.4 g/dl) compared with patients with negative studies (88% and 14.7 g/dl, p = 0.10 and p = 0.18 respectively). Patients with Glenn shunt or unidirectional Fontan had higher incidence of PAVM (10/11) compared with patients with classic or lateral tunnel Fontan (0/3, p = 0.01). All 12 lungs with no perfusion of hepatic venous blood had positive contrast echocardiographic studies. Lungs with no hepatic venous blood flow were more likely to develop PAVM compared with lungs with hepatic venous blood flow (12/12 and 3/16 respectively, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Bubble contrast echocardiography is more sensitive in detecting PAVM compared with pulmonary angiography. The prevalence of PAVM in patients with CPA may be much higher than what had been reported previously. Lungs with no hepatic venous blood flow are more likely to develop PAVM than lungs with hepatic venous blood flow. (+info)
Anatomical study of the neural ganglionated plexus in the canine right atrium: implications for selective denervation and electrophysiology of the sinoatrial node in dog.
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the topography and architecture of the intrinsic neural plexus (INP) in the canine right atrium because of its importance for selective denervation of the sinoatrial node (SAN). The morphology of the intrinsic INP was revealed by a histochemical method for acetylcholinesterase in whole hearts of 36 mongrel dogs and examined by stereoscopic, contact, and electron microscopes. At the hilum of the heart, nerves forming a right atrial INP were detected in five sites adjacent to the right superior pulmonary veins and superior vena cava (SVC). Nerves entered the epicardium and formed a INP, the ganglia of which, as a wide ganglionated field, were continuously distributed on the sides of the root of the SVC (RSVC). The epicardiac ganglia located on the RSVC were differentially involved in the innervation of the sinoatrial node, as revealed by epicardiac nerves emanating from its lower ganglia that proceed also into the atrial walls and right auricle. The INP on the RSVC (INP-RSVC) varied from animal to animal and in relation to the age of the animal. The INP-RSVC of juvenile dogs contained more small ganglia than that of adult animals. Generally, the canine INP-RSVC included 434+/-29 small, 17+/-4 medium-sized, and 3+/-1 large epicardiac ganglia that contained an estimated 44,700, 6,400, and 2,800 neurons, respectively. Therefore, the canine right atrium, including the SAN, may be innervated by more than 54,000 intracardiac neurons residing mostly in the INP-RSVC. In conclusion, the present study indicates that epicardiac ganglia that project to the SA-node are distributed more widely and are more abundant than was previously thought. Therefore, both selective and total denervation of the canine SAN should involve the whole region of the RSVC containing the INP-RSVC. (+info)
Scintigraphic assessment of pulmonary and whole-body blood flow patterns after surgical intervention in congenital heart disease.
Glenn shunt and Fontan procedure, the most widely used surgical procedures in congenital heart anomalies, may be associated with abnormal pulmonary blood flow patterns and the development of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae. METHODS: This study quantified pulmonary and whole-body blood flow using the microsphere technique by sequential injection of 99mTc microspheres into upper and lower limb veins and performing planar lung imaging in four projections and anterior and posterior whole-body scans in 46 patients with either Glenn shunt or Fontan procedure. The right-to-left shunt volume was estimated by a brain and kidneys-to-lungs ratio and compared with calculations from the whole-body scans. RESULTS: In 31 of 46 patients, the blood from the superior vena cava was drained preferentially into the right lung (75%+/-19%). The inferior venous system was drained equally into both lungs. The right-to-left shunt volume was 24%+/-12% after injection into the superior caval system, 50%+/-18% after injection into the inferior caval system. A subgroup of patients who had undergone a palliative Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS) before the final surgery showed a perfusion pattern that was not known after pulmonary angiography or contrast echocardiography: 15 of 24 patients with BTS had hypoperfusion of the upper lobe on the side of the BTS after injection into the arm vein and corresponding normal perfusion or hyperperfusion when injected into the foot vein. CONCLUSION: Lung perfusion scintigraphy after tracer application into the superior and inferior caval systems detects more abnormal pulmonary blood flow patterns than contrast echocardiography and is the only procedure able to quantify right-to-left shunt volume individually for the superior and inferior caval systems. Thus, this diagnostic technique should be part of the routine follow-up in children after Glenn shunt or Fontan procedure. (+info)
Localization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs in the rat systemic and pulmonary vasculatures.
The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs in systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. Using specific antisense riboprobes for dopamine D1 and D2 receptor cDNAs, in situ hybridization histochemistry was performed in the aorta, common carotid artery, vertebral artery, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava of the adult male Sprague Dawley rat. In the case of the aorta, common carotid artery, and vertebral artery, dopamine D1 receptor mRNAs localized mainly in the smooth muscle cells of the tunica media. However, the signals of dopamine D2 receptor mRNAs were found in the endothelium and subendothelial layer of tunica intima, and interstitial cells of tunica adventitia. In the case of the pulmonary artery, signals of dopamine D1 receptor mRNAs were detected within the tunica intima, media, and adventitia. Expression of D2 receptor mRNAs was detected in the walls of small blood vessels within the tunica adventitia of the pulmonary artery. There were no detectable signals of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs in the vein. The uneven distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs in the rat systemic vasculatures and pulmonary artery suggests that dopamine differentially regulates the vasodilation of the systemic and pulmonary arteries through the differential stimulation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor. (+info)