Weak autoantibody reactions to antigens other than sperm after vasectomy.
Autoantibody activity against various antigens was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in 97 men about to undergo vasectomy and 170 men who had undergone the operation up to six years earlier. There was a significantly higher prevalence of weakly positive autoantibody reactions among those who had undergone vasectomy. There was, however, no evidence that vasectomy could induce stronger autoantibody reactions such as those associated with autoimmune disease. (+info)
Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.
The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated. (+info)
Production of germfree mice by embryo transfer.
We applied the embryo transfer technique to germfree (GF) mouse production. Embryos harvested from superovulated mice were transferred aseptically, in a sterile environment, to the uterus of GF recipient females which had been mated with vasectomized GF males. One of the recipients became pregnant and delivered offspring. Sterility tests confirmed that the vasectomized males, newborns, recipient female mice, embryo-containing culture media, and the inside of the vinyl film isolator were germfree. These results suggest that the embryo transfer technique can be successfully applied to the production of GF mice. (+info)
Incidence of sperm antibodies before and after vasectomy.
Sperm-agglutinating antibodies were present in three (2-6%) of 117 fertile men and in 19 (33-9%) of 56 men who had been vasectomized. Twenty-four of the 56 vasectomized men had been studied before vasectomy; sperm-agglutinating antibodies were present in one (4-3%) compared with eight (33-3%) after vasectomy. No sperm-immobilizing antibodies were detected before vasectomy but were present in 10 (17-9%) of the 56 men after vasectomy. (+info)
Inhibition of human seminal fluid DNA polymerase by an IgG fraction of seminal plasma from vasectomized men.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from ejaculates of intact and vasectomized men by precipitation with ammonium sulphate and DEAE-cellulose ionexchange chromatography. Velocity centrifugation revealed that all of the IgG from intact males was 7S protein while less than 40% of the seminal IgG of vasectomized men cosedimented with the 7S marker; the remaining, immunologically unidentifiable, protein was considerably smaller and heterogeneous in size. Only the 7S IgG from the post-vasectomy ejaculates inhibited the activity of a DNA polymerase from the seminal fluid of an intact male. These results suggest that formation of antibody reactive with the seminal fluid DNA polymerase is one manifestation of a vasectomy-associated autoimmune response in man. (+info)
Studies on the immunogenicity of protamines in humans and experimental animals by means of a micro-complement fixation test.
A complement fixation study with human, monkey and rabbit sera, using purified sperm nuclear basic proteins as antigens, led to the following conclusions. (1) Protamines, the sperm-specific basic nuclear proteins, may be immunogenic in mammalians. (2) Antibodies detected in the indirect immunofluorescence test on human swollen sperm heads in sera from infertile and vasectomized men, are directed primarily against human protamines. (3) The results obtained suggested that differences in the immunization site and/or in the configuration of the immunizing protamine, may lead to the formation of antibodies directed against different antigenic determinants. Autoimmunity to protamines, following vasectomy or in infertile men, is accompanied by the formation of antibodies cross-reacting with common antigenic determinants present in protamines of other species. Induction of immunity to protamines by means of immunization with protamines-RNA complexes (in rabbits), or protamine-insulin complexes (in humans), leads to the formation of antibodies reacting more specifically with the immunizing protamine, showing only slight cross-reaction with other protamines. (4) The histone-like fraction present in mature human spermatozoa is composed mainly of histone fraction H2B. (+info)
Post-vasectomy autoimmunity to protamines in relation to the formation of granulomas and sperm agglutinating antibodies.
The development of antibodies reacting with nuclear antigens was studied in sera from vasectomized men and monkeys (obtained at intervals of up to 2 and 4 years, respectively, after the operation), by means of a comparative fluorescence study on swollen nuclei of somatic cells, human and salmon spermatozoa. About 30% of forty-seven vasectomized men developed antibodies to protamines. Also four out of fifteen monkeys, vasectomized with or without ligation, developed antibodies reacting with protamines. In general, when antibodies to the homologous protamines reached higher levels, cross-reactions with salmon protamine could be demonstrated as well. No significant reactions could be detected with somatic nuclear antigens in the sera. Comparison between the results obtained with the immunofluorescence test, the agglutination tests and the clinical findings confirmed the association between the development of immune responses to various sperm-antigens and revealed a coherence of anti-protamine activity and granuloma formation at the site of the operation. (+info)
Induction of pseudopregnancy in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) by vaginal stimulation.
In rats, pseudopregnancy has been induced by mating with vasectomized males, by mechanical stimulation of the uterine cervix with a glass rod or vibrator, and by stimulation of the vagina with a tampon. On the other hand, no practical data are available in reports on the induction of pseudopregnancy in Mongolian gerbils. Pseudopregnancy of gerbils has been induced by mating with vasectomized males. But this method was uncertain because the incidence of pseudopregnancy was lower than that obtained in rats by other means. In the present study, two experiments were undertaken as follows. 1) Copulatory behavior of gerbils was observed for one hour to determine the most effective stimulation interval. 2) From the results of Experiment 1, female gerbils in estrus were mechanically stimulated to test the effectiveness of inducing pseudopregnancy by vaginal stimulation at various time intervals. The results of these experiments indicated that, although the frequency of copulatory behavior varied among individuals, on average the most effective method for inducing pseudopregnancy was stimulation of 5 min duration and at 20 or 30 min intervals. Because the incidence of pseudopregnancy induced by such mechanical stimulation (83.3%) was higher than that induced by mating with vasectomized males (30.0%), this method might be useful in inducing pseudopregnancy in Mongolian gerbils. (+info)