T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay.
Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney. (+info)
The inhibition of myeloperoxidase by ceruloplasmin can be reversed by anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize the recently reported inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by ceruloplasmin and to determine whether this may be disturbed in the presence of anti-MPO antibodies. METHODS: Specificity of the binding between ceruloplasmin and MPO was confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the enzymatic activity of MPO was measured in the presence of ceruloplasmin, affinity-purified anti-MPO antibodies, or both. The affinity of the binding between MPO and ceruloplasmin and MPO and the anti-MPO antibodies was measured using a biosensor, with the results confirmed by chaotrope ELISA. RESULTS: Affinity-purified anti-MPO antibodies from patients with microscopic polyangiitis and florid renal vasculitis inhibited the binding between ceruloplasmin and MPO to a maximum of 72.9 +/- 12.8%, whereas those from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and only minimal renal involvement inhibited the binding to a maximum of only 36.8 +/- 10.9% (P < 0. 001), with comparable reversal of the ceruloplasmin-mediated inhibition of MPO activity. Measurement of the affinity of the interactions demonstrated that binding between MPO and the anti-MPO antibodies is stronger than that between MPO and ceruloplasmin (1.61 x 107 to 1.33 x 108 vs. 7.46 x 106 m-1), indicating that binding to the autoantibody would be favored in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms a role for ceruloplasmin as a physiological inhibitor of MPO, and demonstrates how the inhibition may be disrupted in the presence of anti-MPO antibodies. Because a majority (16 of 21) of the antibodies did not themselves inhibit MPO activity, their interference with the inhibition mediated by ceruloplasmin may be brought about by steric hindrance consequent upon the binding of the antibody to a dominant epitope at or near the active site. (+info)
Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.
Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital. (+info)
KS is a fascinating illness of childhood that has emerged over the last 30 years and is now recognized as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United States. It has a dramatic clinical presentation in most cases, but for a small number of cases that present with a more subtle disease there appears to be a greater risk of coronary artery complications. Progress has been made in the management of KS, but although the disease appears to be related to an infectious etiology, no infectious agent has been proven to be the cause. Finally, issues in long-term management and prognosis are yet to be clarified. (+info)
Vasculitis in the Palmerston North mouse model of lupus: phenotype and cytokine production profile of infiltrating cells.
OBJECTIVE: To define the phenotype of cells in the perivascular and vascular infiltrates of Palmerston North (PN) mice and the cytokines that those cells produce. METHODS: Immunohistologic analysis, flow cytometric analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies were performed on tissues and cells from female PN mice and age-matched and sex-matched DBA/2 mice. RESULTS: With aging, PN mice developed a female-predominant, lupus-like disease, with a severe systemic mononuclear cell perivasculitis and vasculitis. The perivasculitis involved arteries and veins in kidney, liver, brain, and lung; the vasculitis predominantly involved veins and venules. The perivascular and vascular infiltrates in female PN mice were composed mainly of an unusual cell type that expressed phenotypic markers characteristic of both T cells (Thy1+, CD3+, CD4+, T cell receptor + [TCR+]) and B cells (B220+). In addition, the infiltrates contained a smaller number of conventional CD4+,B220- T cells and macrophages. Very few CD8+ T cells or surface Ig+ B cells were seen. Unlike the Thy1+,B220+ T cells present in MRL/lpr mice, most of which were CD4-,CD8- and TCRalpha/beta+, the majority of the Thy1+,B220+ T cells in the perivascular/vascular infiltrates of PN mice were CD4+ and expressed either TCRalpha/beta or TCRgamma/delta. By immunohistologic staining, the cells in the perivascular and vascular infiltrates in the kidneys of older PN mice were shown to produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-10, but not IL-2, interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or IL-1beta. By RT-PCR, the kidneys of older PN mice were found to express high levels of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 messenger RNA. CONCLUSION: The vascular and perivascular infiltrates in PN mice are composed predominantly of an unusual subpopulation of T cells that are Thy1+,B220+,CD4+,CD8-, express either TCRalpha/beta or TCRgamma/delta, and produce mainly type 2 cytokines. The exact role of these cells in the immunopathogenesis of lupus-like disease in PN mice remains to be elucidated. (+info)
Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in systemic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): effects of heat inactivation on binding and specificity.
Heating sera is used to inactivate complement but may affect the binding characteristics of autoantibodies. We studied the effect of heating sera from patients with systemic vasculitides and SLE on antibody binding to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Sera from 32 patients with systemic vasculitides, eight with SLE and 10 healthy controls were studied for anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) using an ELISA before and after heating sera to 56 degrees C for 30 min. The median (range) AECA binding index in the patient group increased from 20% (0-153%) to 71.5% (10-259%) (P < 0.0001). The AECA binding index in the control group also increased from 14% (0-52%) to 90% (42-154%) (P < 0.0001). The increased binding was unaffected by the addition of fresh complement or removal of immune complexes and the increased binding after heating persisted even after cooling to 4 degrees C. Specificity experiments showed that after heating, the binding specificity of sera was lost. Removal of immunoglobulin with Protein A abolished the increased binding seen after heating. Heating sera increases AECA binding in both patient and control sera. The mechanism is probably non-specific damage to the immunoglobulin molecule, and heating sera should thus be avoided. (+info)
Aldose reductase functions as a detoxification system for lipid peroxidation products in vasculitis.
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting large and medium-sized arteries. Inflammatory infiltrates in the arterial wall induce luminal occlusion with subsequent ischemia and degradation of the elastic membranes, allowing aneurysm formation. To identify pathways relevant to the disease process, differential display-PCR was used. The enzyme aldose reductase (AR), which is implicated in the regulation of tissue osmolarity, was found to be upregulated in the arteritic lesions. Upregulated AR expression was limited to areas of tissue destruction in inflamed arteries, where it was detected in T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The production of AR was highly correlated with the presence of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde and downstream product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro exposure of mononuclear cells to HNE was sufficient to induce AR production. The in vivo relationship of AR and HNE was explored by treating human GCA temporal artery-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse chimeras with the AR inhibitors Sorbinil and Zopolrestat. Inhibition of AR increased HNE adducts twofold and the number of apoptotic cells in the arterial wall threefold. These data demonstrate that AR has a tissue-protective function by preventing damage from lipid peroxidation. We propose that AR is an oxidative defense mechanism able to neutralize the toxic effects of lipid peroxidation and has a role in limiting the arterial wall injury mediated by reactive oxygen species. (+info)
Adenovirus-mediated delivery of fas ligand inhibits intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in immunologically primed animals.
BACKGROUND: Adenoviral constructs have been used for studies of injury-induced vascular hyperplasia in immunologically naive laboratory animals, but their usefulness for intra-arterial gene therapy may be limited by the prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenovirus in the patient population. Here, we explored the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated transfer of Fas ligand, a cytotoxic gene with immunomodulatory properties, in inhibiting injury-induced vascular lesion formation in both naive and immunologically primed animals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lesion formation was evaluated in balloon-injured carotid arteries of naive and adenovirus-immunized rats that were infected with adenoviral constructs expressing Fas ligand (Ad-FasL), the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (Ad-p21), or beta-galactosidase (Ad-betagal). In naive rats, Ad-FasL induced apoptosis in medial vascular smooth muscle cells and inhibited intimal hyperplasia by 60% relative to Ad-betagal-treated vessels (P<0.05), whereas the cytostatic agent Ad-p21 decreased lesion size by 58% (P<0.05). In animals preimmunized with an adenoviral vector containing no transgene, Ad-FasL significantly inhibited neointima formation (73% reduction, P<0.05), but Ad-p21 failed to inhibit neointima formation relative to controls. Immunologically primed rats displayed robust T-cell infiltration in Ad-p21- and Ad-betagal-treated vessels, but T-cell infiltration was markedly attenuated in Ad-FasL-treated vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated Fas ligand delivery can inhibit intimal hyperplasia in both immunologically primed and naive animals, whereas the efficacy of an adenovirus-mediated p21 delivery is limited to immunologically naive animals. This study documents, for the first time, the therapeutic efficacy of intravascular adenoviral gene transfer in animals with preexisting immunity to adenovirus. (+info)