Loss of the VEGF(164) and VEGF(188) isoforms impairs postnatal glomerular angiogenesis and renal arteriogenesis in mice.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is transcribed in the VEGF(120), VEGF(164), or VEGF(188) isoforms, which differ in receptor binding, matrix association, and angiogenic activity. This vascular growth factor has been implicated in the development of the renal vasculature, but the role of the distinct VEGF isoforms remains unknown. In the present report, renal angiogenesis and arteriogenesis were studied in VEGF(120/120) mice, expressing only the short VEGF(120) isoform. In VEGF(120/120) mice, ingrowth and survival of capillaries in glomeruli, remodeling of peritubular capillaries, vascular coverage by pericytes, and branching of renal arteries were all severely impaired, causing abnormal glomerular filtration and impairing renal function. The arterial branching defect might be related to a reduced expression of renin, a presumed renal arterial branching factor. Glomerulosclerosis and tubular dilation possibly resulted from renal ischemia caused by vascular defects. Thus, VEGF(164) and VEGF(188) not only mediate angiogenesis, but they also play an essential role in renal branching arteriogenesis. (+info)
Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, comprising at least five cytokines specifically involved in the regulation of vascular and/or lymphatic endothelium differentiation. Several lines of evidence indicate a role for PlGF in monocyte chemotaxis and in potentiating the activity of VEGF, but the exact function of this cytokine is not fully understood. To define the biological role of PlGF in vivo, we have produced a transgenic mouse model overexpressing this factor in the skin by using a keratin 14 promoter cassette. Our data indicate that PlGF has strong angiogenic properties in both fetal and adult life. PlGF overexpression results in a substantial increase in the number, branching and size of dermal blood vessels as well as in enhanced vascular permeability. Indeed, intradermally injected recombinant PlGF was able to induce vessel permeability in wild-type mice. The analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1/flt-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/flk-1 indicates that the two receptors are induced in the skin endothelium of transgenic mice suggesting that both are involved in mediating the effect of overexpressed PlGF. (+info)
Peritubular capillary regression during the progression of experimental obstructive nephropathy.
Injury to the renal microvasculature may be a major factor contributing to the progression of renal disease. Although severe disruption of peritubular capillaries (PTC) could lead to marked tubulointerstitial scarring, elucidation of that process remains incomplete. This study investigated the morphologic changes in PTC and their likely regulation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the progression of tubulointerstitial injuries. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was induced in Wistar rats by ligation of the left ureter, and the kidneys were then collected at selected times. PTC lumina and the expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1 were immunohistochemically detected. Morphologic changes in PTC endothelial cells were examined by using Ki67 staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling, and electron-microscopic studies. In the first week of the disease period, immunohistochemical labeling of tubular VEGF intensified, with accompanying deformation and dilation of adjacent thrombomodulin (TM)-positive PTC lumina; an angiogenic response of endothelial cells was demonstrated with Ki67 and TM double-staining. During the subsequent 2 wk, tubular VEGF labeling decreased until it was virtually absent, an effect confirmed by Western blotting. Concomitantly, labeling of the VEGF receptor Flk-1 in PTC endothelial cells decreased and PTC lumina began to regress, demonstrating endothelial cell apoptosis (as detected in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling and electron-microscopic studies). By the end of week 4, the numbers of TM-positive PTC lumina were significantly decreased in areas of marked tubulointerstitial scarring. These results suggest that PTC regression, involving an early, unsustained, angiogenic response followed by progressive endothelial cell apoptosis, could be a potential factor contributing to tubulointerstitial scarring in this unilateral ureteral obstruction model. (+info)
Angiotensin II regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1 in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity.
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in angiogenesis, wound healing and inflammation. VEGF exerts its effect via the tyrosine kinase receptors Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1. We have previously shown that VEGF is up-regulated in a chronic cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity model. Our current study examined the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) blockade with enalapril (E) or losartan (L) on VEGF in this model. METHODS: Pair-fed salt-depleted rats were administered vehicle, CsA, CsA + nilvadipine, CsA + hydralazine/hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ), CsA + E or CsA + L, and were sacrificed at 7 or 28 days. Physiologic and histologic changes were studied in addition to the mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1 by Northern blot, and the protein expression of VEGF by Western blot. RESULTS: While all groups achieved similar blood pressures and creatinine clearances, the amelioration in nephrotoxicity was observed only with Ang II blockade. VEGF mRNA and protein expressions increased with CsA and became significantly reduced with Ang II blockade. Flt-1 expression was similar in all groups; it decreased early and remained low. On the other hand, KDR/Flk-1 mRNA expression was higher at seven days in all groups, except in the +E and +L groups where it was significantly lower, and then became further down-regulated at 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: The increased VEGF expression in chronic CsA nephrotoxicity seems to be related to up-regulation of Ang II. In addition, VEGF probably exerted its effect via the KDR/Flk-1 receptor. The actions of VEGF in this model remain speculative, but may be related to its effect on macrophage infiltration or matrix deposition. (+info)
Exogenous Slit2 does not affect ureteric branching or nephron formation during kidney development.
In an attempt to elucidate the role of Slit2 in vertebrate kidney development, the effect of adding exogenous human Slit2 protein (hSlit2) to developing murine metanephric kidney explants was examined. To confirm the activity of the recombinant Slit2 protein, neurons from 8 day old chick sympathetic nerve chain dorsal root ganglia were cultured with hSlit2 protein, which induced significant neurite branching and outgrowth. Using kidney explants as a model system, metanephric development in the presence of hSlit2 protein was examined. Addition of hSlit2 up to a final concentration of 1 microg/ml had no detectable effect on the formation of nephrons or on branching morphogenesis of the ureteric tree after 2 or 4 days in culture, as assessed via immunofluorescence for the markers WT1 and calbindin 28K respectively. Similarly, maturation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme occurred in a phenotypically normal fashion. In situ analysis of the Slit receptors, Robo1 and Robo2, the vasculogenic markers VEGFA and Flk-1, and the stromal cell marker BF2 displayed no difference in comparison to controls. (+info)
The type 2 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor recruits insulin receptor substrate-1 in its signalling pathway.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms exert their biological effects through receptors that possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Whether VEGF binding to its receptors recruits insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family of docking proteins to the receptor is not known. Following incubation of mouse kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells with VEGF, we observed an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including one of approximately 200 kDa, suggesting possible regulation of phosphorylation of IRS proteins. VEGF augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in kidney epithelial cells and rat heart endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. In the epithelial cells, association of IRS-1 with type 2 VEGF receptor was promoted by VEGF. VEGF also increased association of IRS-1 with the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates was increased in VEGF-treated cells. Incubation of epithelial cells with antisense IRS-1 oligonucleotide, but not sense oligonucleotide, reduced expression of the protein and VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates. Additionally, VEGF-induced protein synthesis was also impaired by antisense but not sense IRS-1 oligonucleotide. These data provide the first evidence that binding of VEGF to its type 2 receptor promotes association of IRS-1 with the receptor complex. This association may account for some of the increase in VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activity, and the increase in de novo protein synthesis seen in renal epithelial cells. (+info)
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody reduces tumorigenicity and metastasis in orthotopic prostate cancer xenografts via induction of endothelial cell apoptosis and reduction of endothelial cell matrix metalloproteinase type 9 production.
PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is produced by tumor cells, is a potent endothelial cell mitogen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of orthotopic prostate cancer xenografts and prostate cancer bone metastasis to anti-VEGF receptor (flk-1) antibody (DC101) treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Orthotopic prostate cancer models (PC-3M-MM2 and LNCaP-LN3 prostate carcinoma cells) and a prostate cancer bone metastasis model (PC-3M-MM2) were used for these experiments. Early and established tumors were treated with saline, paclitaxel, DC101, or a DC101-plus-paclitaxel combination for 5 weeks (PC-3M-MM2) and 12 weeks (LNCaP-LN3). At the end of therapy, tumors were removed and weighed. Apoptosis, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenesis- and metastasis-related gene expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-ediated nick end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS: After treatment of early tumors (PC-3M-MM2), median prostate tumor weights (+/-SE) were 1230 +/- 210 mg in untreated controls, 482 +/- 121 mg in mice treated with paclitaxel (P = 0.009), 148 +/- 27 mg in mice treated with DC101 (P < 0.001), and 48 +/- 10 mg in mice treated with the combination of DC101 and paclitaxel (P < 0.001). Lymph node metastasis occurred in 7 of the 9 control mice, 5 of the 9 paclitaxel-treated animals, 5 of the 12 DC101-treated animals, and 2 of the 11 animals in the combination therapy group. Treatment with DC101 alone or in combination with paclitaxel reduced tumor-induced neovascularity measured by microvessel density and tumor cell proliferation (by proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and enhanced apoptosis (measured by TUNEL) in tumor cells and endothelial cells compared with controls. In the tibial prostate cancer metastasis model, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed. In the LNCaP-LN3 orthotopic prostate cancer model, tumors occurred in 7 of the 10 control mice, 4 of the 10 paclitaxel-treated animals, 5 of the 10 DC101-treated animals, and 2 of the 11 animals in the combination therapy group (P < 0.05). The efficacy of DC101 was much greater in the treatment of early tumors, which suggests that tumor burden may be a critical factor in determining the response to DC101. In vitro and in vivo analysis of endothelial cell function showed reduced matrix metalloproteinase type 9 production in endothelial cells treated with DC101. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the principle of tumor growth inhibition by targeting angiogenesis within tumors and supports the use of anti-VEGF receptor agents. (+info)
A novel peptide isolated from a phage display library inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by blocking the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor to its kinase domain receptor.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important angiogenic factors, plays an essential role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The VEGF receptor KDR/Flk-1 (a kinase domain receptor) mediates various biological activities of VEGF related to proliferation, differentiation, and migration of endothelial cells. Here we present a novel peptide designated K237-(HTMYYHHYQHHL), which was isolated from a phage-displayed peptide library, binding to KDR with high affinity and specificity. By interfering with the VEGF-KDR interaction, the peptide K237 inhibited proliferation of cultured primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by recombinant human VEGF(165) in a dose-dependent and cell type-specific manner. The peptide also exerted an anti-angiogenesis activity in vivo as revealed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis assay. Moreover, the peptide K237 significantly inhibited the growth of solid tumors implanted beneath the breasts and their metastases to lungs in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the peptide K237 can functionally disrupt the interaction between VEGF and the KDR receptor and cause potent biological effects that include the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth. As a consequence, this peptide (and its future derivatives) may have use as a potential cancer therapy. (+info)