Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium.
1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability. (+info)
Morphology of the epididymal region and ductus deferens of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).
The ductal system of the reproductive tract of the male domestic turkey was studied by gross dissection and light microscopy of paraffin and Epon embedded tissues. The succession of ductules as one passes caudally from the testis was as follows: seminiferous tubules; rete testis; ductuli efferentes; connecting ductules; ductus epididymidis; ductus deferens; receptaculum ductus deferentis; papilla ductus deferentis. Non-ciliated cells of the male tract consisted of squamous and low cuboidal cells of the rete testis, granulated columnar cells lining the ductuli efferentes and connective ductules; agranulated columnar cells which formed the epithelium of the ductus epididymidis, ductus deferens, receptaculum and papilla ductus deferentis; and basal cells which were found in increasing number from the ductuli efferentes to the papilla. The basal cells had a reduced amount of cytoplasm and stained more intensely than the other cell types. Ciliated cells were apparent in the ductuli efferentes and connecting ductules, and these consistently stained lighter than the non-ciliated cells. Non-ciliated columnar cells of the ductuli efferentes and connecting ductules contained chromatophilic granules. Cytoplasmic blebbing into the ductal lumina was found associated with these non-ciliated cells as well as the agranular cells of the ductus epididymidis and deferens. Evidence obtained from this study suggests that the non-ciliated cells of the ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens have a contribution to make to the seminal plasma by apocrine secretion. (+info)
Molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene reveals a high frequency of the intron 8 splice variant 5T in Egyptian males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens.
It has previously been shown that defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are largely responsible for the condition of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), without associated renal abnormalities, in Caucasian populations. To assess the involvement of the CFTR in CBAVD in a population with presumed low cystic fibrosis (CF) frequency, we have analysed 20 CBAVD males from Egypt for the presence of 12 common Caucasian CFTR mutations and the intron 8 5T splice variant, IVS-5T, known to be a major cause of CBAVD in Caucasian patients. In 16 of the males without associated renal abnormalities only one deltaF508 carrier was identified, but an exceptionally high frequency of the IVS-5T variant was found (14 of 32 alleles or 43.7%), confirming that this variant is involved in many cases of CBAVD, even in populations where CF is rare. CFTR mutations or the IVS-5T variant were found neither in the remaining four patients with associated renal abnormalities nor in the spouses of the 20 CBAVD patients. However, one patient was homozygous for a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid position 541 (L541P) of the CFTR. It is as yet not clear whether this change is involved in CBAVD in this male. (+info)
Effects of heptanol on the neurogenic and myogenic contractions of the guinea-pig vas deferens.
1. The effects of the putative gap junction uncoupler, 1-heptanol, on the neurogenic and myogenic contractile responses of guinea-pig vas deferens were studied in vitro. 2. Superfusion of 2.0 mM heptanol for 20-30 min produced the following reversible changes in the biphasic neurogenic contractile response (8 trials): (i) suppression of both phases; (ii) delayed development of both the first as well as the second phase, accompanied by complete temporal separation of the two phases; (iii) prominent oscillations of force during the second (noradrenergic) phase only. 3. To eliminate prejunctional effects of heptanol, myogenic contractions were evoked by field stimulation of the vas in the presence of suramin (200 microM) and prazosin (1 microM). Heptanol (2.0 mM) abolished these contractions reversibly. 4. These results show that (i) heptanol inhibits both excitatory junction potential (EJP)-dependent and non EJP-dependent contractions of the vas; (ii) a postjunctional site of action of heptanol, probably intercellular uncoupling of smooth muscle cells, contributes to the inhibition of contraction. (+info)
Differential effects of pinacidil, cromakalim, and NS 1619 on electrically evoked contractions in rat vas deferens.
AIM: To compare the inhibitory action of electrically evoked contractions of rat epididymal vas deferens by pinacidil (Pin), cromakalim (Cro), and NS 1619. METHODS: Monophasic contractions were evoked by electric field stimulation in rat isolated epididymal half of vas deferens. RESULTS: Newly developed ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers, Pin and Cro, concentration-dependently reduced the electrically evoked (0.3 Hz, 1 ms pulse duration, 60 V) contractions and glibenclamide but not charybdotoxin antagonized the inhibitory effects of both agents. Pin shifted the concentration-response curve for norepinephrine to the right with reducing the magnitude of the maximum contraction in a glibenclamide-sensitive fashion. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel opener, NS 1619, inhibited the electrically evoked contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Charybdotoxin (100 nmol.L-1) partially reduced the effect of NS 1619 but glibenclamide (10 mumol.L-1) showed no effect. None of these 3 agents affected the basal tension. CONCLUSION: Both ATP-sensitive and Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels presented in vas deferens smooth muscles involved in regulation of muscle contractility. (+info)
Antinociceptive properties of the new alkaloid, cis-8, 10-di-N-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dihydrate isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus: evidence for the mechanism of action.
The antinociceptive action of the alkaloid cis-8, 10-di-n-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dehydrate (DPHD), isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus, given i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v., was assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin- and capsaicin-induced licking, and hot-plate and tail-flick tests. DPHD given by i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v. elicited significant and dose-related antinociception. At the ID50 level, DPHD was about 2- to 39-fold more potent than aspirin and dipyrone, but it was about 14- to 119-fold less potent than morphine. Its analgesic action was reversed by treatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine, naloxone, cyprodime, naltrindole, nor-binaltrorphimine, L-arginine, or pertussis toxin. Its action was also modulated by adrenal-gland hormones but was not affected by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A or type B antagonist, bicuculine, or phaclofen, nor was it affected by glibenclamide. DPHD, given daily for up to 7 days, did not develop tolerance to itself nor did it induce cross-tolerance to morphine. However, animals rendered tolerant to morphine presented cross-tolerance to DPHD. The antinociception of DPHD was not secondary to its anti-inflammatory effect, nor was it associated with nonspecific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. DPHD, in contrast to morphine, did not decrease charcoal meal transit in mice, nor did it inhibit electrical field stimulation of the guinea pig ileum or mouse vas deferens in vitro. Thus, DPHD produces dose-dependent and pronounced systemic, spinal, and supraspinal antinociception in mice, including against the neurogenic nociception induced by formalin and capsaicin. Its antinociceptive effect involves multiple mechanisms of action, namely interaction with mu, delta, or kappa opioid systems, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonin pathways, activation of Gi protein sensitive to pertussis toxin, and modulation by endogenous glucocorticoids. (+info)
The complex relationships between cystic fibrosis and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens: clinical, electrophysiological and genetic data.
Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is found in 1-2% of infertile males and in most male cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF and some of the CBAVD cases were found to share the same genetic background. In this study, 21 males with CBAVD had extensive physical and laboratory testing for symptoms of CF. Possible defective cellular chloride transport was measured by interstitial current measurement of rectal suction biopsies. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation analysis was performed for 10 common CFTR mutations. CF-related symptoms were found in six men. On laboratory testing slightly abnormal liver and pancreatic function was found in seven patients. The sweat test was found to be abnormal in four patients; interstitial current measurement showed defective chloride excretion in 11 patients. CFTR gene mutations were found in 66% of the patients: eight were compound heterozygotes; in six, only one common mutation could be detected. The 5T allele in one copy of intron 8 was found in four men. CBAVD appears to be a heterogeneous clinical and genetic condition. A CFTR gene mutation was found in both copies of the allele or interstitial current measurement showed defective chloride excretion in 14/21 cases. Genetic counselling is clearly indicated for couples seeking pregnancy through epididymal or testicular sperm aspiration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (+info)
Postnatal differentiation of the ductus deferens, tail of the epididymis, and distal body of the epididymis in goats occurs independently of rete testis fluid.
Observations from extratesticular rete-ligated, mature goats indicated that epithelial morphology in the tail of the epididymis can be maintained without any input from testicular fluid (Goyal et al., Acta Anat., 1994;150: 127-135). Hence, the objective of this study was to determine whether the tail of the epididymis and/or other regions of the male excurrent ducts can differentiate prior to the appearance of lumen in the seminiferous tubules, which is an indicator for the onset of seminiferous tubular fluid secretion. Based on age and scrotal circumference (SC), 20 male goats were divided into four groups of five animals each: 1-4 weeks (SC, 6.5-7.5 cm), 7-10 weeks (SC, 8.5-11.0 cm), 12-15 weeks (SC, 11.0-14.0 cm), and 15-25 weeks (SC, 16.0-19.0 cm). Tissues were collected from the testis, six regions of the epididymis (proximal, middle and distal head; proximal and distal body; and tail), and the ductus deferens, and were processed for light and electron microscopic examination. Changes in epithelial height and cytological features associated with absorption (microvilli, pinocytotic and coated vesicles) and protein secretion (RER, Golgi body) were used as markers for differentiation. Differentiation of all of these features was comparable to that observed in the 15-25-week-old animals in the ductus deferens by > or = 1 week, in the tail of the epididymis by > or = 7 weeks, in the distal body of the epididymis by > or = 12 weeks, and in the proximal body of the epididymis and all three regions of the head of the epididymis by > or = 15 weeks. Seminiferous tubules developed lumens between 12 and 15 weeks. In conclusion, epithelial differentiation in the ductus deferens, tail of the epididymis, and distal body of the epididymis follows a time-dependent, spatial, ascending order and is achieved before lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules. Conversely, epithelial differentiation in all three regions of the head and the proximal body of the epididymis occurs simultaneously and after lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules. (+info)