Mid-term results of endoscopic perforator vein interruption for chronic venous insufficiency: lessons learned from the North American subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery registry. The North American Study Group.
PURPOSE: The safety, feasibility, and early efficacy of subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency were established in a preliminary report. The long-term clinical outcome and the late complications after SEPS are as yet undetermined. METHODS: The North American Subfascial Endoscopic Perforator Surgery registry collected information on 148 SEPS procedures that were performed in 17 centers in the United States and Canada between August 1, 1993, and February 15, 1996. The data analysis in this study focused on mid-term outcome in 146 patients. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six patients (79 men and 67 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 27 to 87 years) underwent SEPS. One hundred and one patients (69%) had active ulcers (class 6), and 21 (14%) had healed ulcers (class 5). One hundred and three patients (71%) underwent concomitant venous procedures (stripping, 70; high ligation, 17; varicosity avulsion alone, 16). There were no deaths or pulmonary embolisms. One deep venous thrombosis occurred at 2 months. The follow-up periods averaged 24 months (range, 1 to 53 months). Cumulative ulcer healing at 1 year was 88% (median time to healing, 54 days). Concomitant ablation of superficial reflux and lack of deep venous obstruction predicted ulcer healing (P <.05). Clinical score improved from 8.93 to 3.98 at the last follow-up (P <. 0001). Cumulative ulcer recurrence at 1 year was 16% and at 2 years was 28% (standard error, < 10%). Post-thrombotic limbs had a higher 2-year cumulative recurrence rate (46%) than did those limbs with primary valvular incompetence (20%; P <.05). Twenty-eight of the 122 patients (23%) who had class 5 or class 6 ulcers before surgery had an active ulcer at the last follow-up examination. CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of perforators with ablation of superficial reflux is effective in decreasing the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and rapidly healing ulcers. Recurrence or new ulcer development, however, is still significant, particularly in post-thrombotic limbs. The reevaluation of the indications for SEPS is warranted because operations in patients without previous deep vein thrombosis are successful but operations in those patients with deep vein thrombosis are less successful. Operations on patients with deep vein occlusion have poor outcomes. (+info)
Duplex-derived evidence of reflux after varicose vein surgery: neoreflux or neovascularisation?
BACKGROUND: Recurrent varicose veins remain a problem in surgical practice despite improvements to the preoperative investigation of, and surgery for varicose veins. Neovascularisation accounts for some cases of recurrence within a few years of surgery, but other factors relating to disease progression must also play a part. We investigated whether new venous reflux (neoreflux) could occur in the early postoperative period (within 6 weeks) following successful varicose vein surgery. METHODS: Eighteen-month prospective observational study in the dedicated vascular surgery unit of a university teaching hospital. Forty-six patients, with primary saphenofemoral junction reflux, awaiting varicose vein surgery were chosen consecutively from the waiting list. All saphenofemoral surgery was performed in a standardised fashion. Assessments were performed prior to, at 6 weeks and at 1 year after surgery. Duplex ultrasound was used to identify and locate sites of reflux. RESULTS: Neoreflux was present at the 6-week postoperative scan in nine limbs after varicose vein surgery (19.6%), and resolved in 55.6% of patients within 1 year. Neovascularisation was noted in two limbs at the 1-year scan. CONCLUSION: New sites of reflux, which may resolve spontaneously, occur in the early postoperative period despite adequate varicose vein surgery. It is our hypothesis that this is a manifestation of the effect of altered venous haemodynamics in a system of susceptible veins. (+info)
Towards measurement of outcome for patients with varicose veins.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid and reliable outcome measure for patients with varicose veins. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey of patients with varicose veins. SETTING: Surgical outpatient departments and training general practices in Grampian region. SUBJECTS: 373 patients, 287 of whom had just been referred to hospital for their varicose veins and 86 who had just consulted a general practitioner for this condition and, for comparison, a random sample of 900 members of the general population. MAIN MEASURES: Content validity, internal consistency, and criterion validity. RESULTS: 281(76%) patients (mean age 45.8; 76% female) and 542(60%) of the general population (mean age 47.9; 54% female) responded. The questionnaire had good internal consistency as measured by item-total correlations. Factor analysis identified four important health factors: pain and dysfunction, cosmetic appearance, extent of varicosity and complications. The validity of the questionnaire was demonstrated by a high correlation with the SF-36 health profile, which is a general measure of patients' health. The perceived health of patients with varicose veins, as measured by the SF-36, was significantly lower than that of the sample of the general population adjusted for age and a lower proportion of women. CONCLUSION: A clinically derived questionnaire can provide a valid and reliable tool to assess the perceived health of patients with varicose veins. IMPLICATIONS: The questionnaire may be used to justify surgical treatment of varicose veins. (+info)
SF 36 health survey questionnaire: I. Reliability in two patient based studies.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the SF 36 health survey questionnaire in two patient populations. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire followed up, if necessary, by two reminders at two week intervals. Retest questionnaires were administered postally at two weeks in the first study and at one week in the second study. SETTING: Outpatient clinics and four training general practices in Grampian region in the north east of Scotland (study 1); a gastroenterology outpatient clinic in Aberdeen Royal Hospitals Trust (study 2). PATIENTS: 1787 patients presenting with one of four conditions: low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, and varicose veins and identified between March and June 1991 (study 1) and 573 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic in April 1993. MAIN MEASURES: Assessment of internal consistency reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and of test-retest reliability with the Pearson correlation coefficient and confidence interval analysis. RESULTS: In study 1, 1317 of 1746 (75.4%) correctly identified patients entered the study and in study 2, 549 of 573 (95.8%). Both methods of assessing reliability produced similar results for most of the SF 36 scales. The most conservative estimates of reliability gave 95% confidence intervals for an individual patient's score difference ranging from -19 to 19 for the scales measuring physical functioning and general health perceptions, to -65.7 to 65.7 for the scale measuring role limitations attributable to emotional problems. In a controlled clinical trial with sample sizes of 65 patients in each group, statistically significant differences of 20 points can be detected on all eight SF 36 scales. CONCLUSIONS: All eight scales of the SF 36 questionnaire show high reliability when used to monitor health in groups of patients, and at least four scales possess adequate reliability for use in managing individual patients. Further studies are required to test the feasibility of implementing the SF 36 and other outcome measures in routine clinical practice within the health service. (+info)
SF 36 health survey questionnaire: II. Responsiveness to changes in health status in four common clinical conditions.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the responsiveness of the SF 36 health survey questionnaire to changes in health status over time for four common clinical conditions. DESIGN: Postal questionnaires at baseline and after one year's follow up, with two reminders at two week intervals if necessary. SETTING: Clinics and four training general practices in Grampian region in the north east of Scotland. PATIENTS: More than 1,700 patients aged 16 to 86 years with one of four conditions: low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, and varicose veins; and a random sample of 900 members of the local general population for comparison. MAIN MEASURES: A transition question measuring change in health and the eight scales of the SF 36 health survey questionnaire; standardised response means (mean change in score for a scale divided by the standard deviation of the change in scores) used to quantify the instrument's responsiveness to changes in perceived health status, and comparison of patient scores at baseline and follow up with those of the general population. RESULTS: The response rate exceeded 75% in a patient population. Changes across the SF 36 questionnaire were associated with self reported changes in health, as measured by the transition question. The questionnaire showed significant improvements in health status for all four clinical conditions, whether in referred or non-referred patients. For patients with suspected peptic ulcer and varicose veins the SF 36 profiles at one year approximate to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of the responsiveness of the SF 36 questionnaire to changes in perceived health status in a patient population in the United Kingdom. (+info)
Understanding the basis of treatment choices for varicose veins: a model for decision making with the repertory grid technique.
OBJECTIVES: To use the repertory grid technique as a method for identifying and rating the criteria that clinicians use to make a choice between the different treatment options for patients with a common condition such as varicose veins. DESIGN: The "expert panel" consensus method for rating the appropriateness of clinical procedures was modified with an existing psychometric method, the repertory grid technique. To identify the criteria used to decide about treatment, the panel members compared and contrasted a range of nine "treatment prototypes". They were then required to rate each criterion for its relevance to each treatment prototype. SETTING: The panel was selected from different geographical locations in the South Western Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS: The expert panel was composed of six vascular surgeons, three from teaching and three from non-teaching hospitals; two general practitioners who were also clinical assistants in vascular surgery; and one honorary senior lecturer in general practice. MAIN MEASURES: Decision making criteria were categorised according to their content. Their frequency of replication was noted-that is, how many clinicians used the same criterion. Computer analysis of the rating scores for the nine panel members identified the relative importance of each treatment criterion for each treatment option. RESULTS: 161 criteria for the treatment of varicose veins were elicited from the nine participants. These criteria were wide ranging, from clinical indications (48% of those used), to social (32%), and organisational factors (20%). Clinical indications were more likely to be used when deciding about surgery as a high priority, whereas social and organisational criteria were more likely to be applied in decisions about surgery as a low priority, day case surgery, and cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The repertory grid technique proved to be effective in modelling decision making for a condition such as varicose veins: its use enabled both the identification of the wide range of criteria underlying the decision to treat and the exploration of the relative importance of these criteria in relation to several treatment options. Its potential as a method for reducing variation in clinical decision making and thus improving distribution of high quality care lies in its ability to pinpoint dilemmas of decision making rather than as the basis for drawing up guidelines to regulate decision making practice. (+info)
Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision.
We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision. (+info)
Stripping the long saphenous vein reduces the rate of reoperation for recurrent varicose veins: five-year results of a randomized trial.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible long-term clinical advantages of stripping the long saphenous vein during routine primary varicose vein surgery. METHODS: The study was designed as a 5-year, clinical and duplex scan follow-up examination of a group of patients who were randomized to stripping of the long saphenous vein during varicose vein surgery versus saphenofemoral ligation alone. The study was conducted in the vascular unit of a district general hospital. One hundred patients (133 legs) with uncomplicated primary long saphenous varicose veins originally were randomized. After invitation 5 years later, 78 patients (110 legs) underwent clinical review and duplex scan imaging. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients remained pleased with the results of their surgery (35 of 39 stripped vs 30 of 39 ligated; P = .13). Reoperation, either done or awaited, for recurrent long saphenous veins was necessary for three of 52 of the legs that underwent stripping versus 12 of 58 ligated legs. The relative risk was 0.28, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.13 to 0.59 (P = .02). Neovascularization at the saphenofemoral junction was responsible for 10 of 12 recurrent veins that underwent reoperation and also was the cause of recurrent saphenofemoral incompetence in 12 of 52 stripped veins versus 30 of 58 ligated legs. The relative risk was 0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.26 to 0.78 (P = .002). CONCLUSION: Stripping reduced the risk of reoperation by two thirds after 5 years and should be routine for primary long saphenous varicose veins. (+info)