Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women.
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well. (+info)
Molecular and epidemiological characterization of vaginal Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates.
Although vaginitis caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is extremely rare, in recent years we have experienced an increasing frequency of S. cerevisiae isolation from the vaginas of fertile-age women. In order to investigate the epidemiology of these vaginal infections, a total of 40 isolates of S. cerevisiae derived from symptomatic and asymptomatic women were characterized by two DNA typing approaches, named ribosomal DNA (rDNA) hybridization and Ty917 hybridization, based on the Southern blotting technique. After transfer, the polymorphic DNA restriction fragments were hybridized with the entire repeat of S. cerevisiae rDNA for one method and with the entire sequence of the Ty917 retrotransposon for the other. After elaboration with computer-assisted analysis, the results of each method showed that Ty917 hybridization is endowed with a discriminatory power higher than that of rDNA hybridization. With the Ty917 hybridization method, all of the S. cerevisiae isolates tested appeared very heterogeneous, with the exception of those collected from individual patients with recurrent vaginitis. This allowed us to exclude a possible common source of infection while the high relatedness among S. cerevisiae sequential isolates from recurrent-vaginitis patients could suggest a pattern of relapse rather than frequent reinfection. (+info)
Maternal infections in pregnancy and the development of asthma among offspring.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that asthma phenotype could probably be programmed before birth. The current study examined the impact of maternal vaginitis and febrile infections during pregnancy on the subsequent development of asthma among children. METHODS: The analyses were based on 8088 children from the northern Finland birth cohort, 1985-1986. RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma at age 7 was 3.5%. Children had a higher risk of asthma if their mothers experienced vaginitis and febrile infections during pregnancy, odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, (95% CI: 1.08-1.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.25-2.18), respectively, after adjusting for other covariates. There was a clear time trend in risk of childhood asthma corresponding to the timing of maternal febrile infections in pregnancy. The adjusted OR for the first, second and third trimesters were 2.08 (95% CI: 1.13-3.82), 1.73 (95% CI: 1.09-2.75) and 1.44 (95% CI: 0.97-2.15), respectively. Maternal history of allergic diseases, birthweight <2500 g and male gender also seemed to be risk factors for childhood asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that further investigation of the relation of maternal infections during pregnancy to asthma among children seems warranted. (+info)
Evaluation of the Oricult-N dipslide for laboratory diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis.
The Oricult-N semiquantitative dipslide (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) was evaluated for the laboratory diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis. It was compared with broth culture (Vagicult; Orion Diagnostica). Oricult-N was positive for 14.5% of 124 symptomatic patients and 12% of 50 asymptomatic controls. The results for broth cultures were 17 and 22%, respectively. Thus, the test group and the control group did not differ significantly by either method. High vaginal yeast counts (>/=10(5) CFU/ml) were detected by Oricult-N in 7% of patients and in 0% of controls, but both groups harbored low numbers of yeasts. An accurate quantitative cutoff point separating a level of yeast associated with infection from vaginal yeast carriage could not be defined in the study. Nevertheless, the easy semiquantitation allowed by the Oricult-N method could be helpful because, especially in low-count carriers of Candida, other potential causes of vaginal symptoms should be considered. The Oricult-N method was technically simple and could be applied in primary health care. Further studies are required, however, before Oricult-N can be recommended as a routine diagnostic tool. (+info)
Rabbit oral papillomavirus complete genome sequence and immunity following genital infection.
Rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) infects mucosal tissues of domestic rabbits. The viral genomic sequence has been determined and the most related papillomavirus type was the cutaneous cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). Homologies between the open reading frames (ORFs) of ROPV and CRPV, however, ranged from 68% amino acid identity for L1 to only 23% identity for E4. Shared features unique to the two rabbit viruses included a large E6 ORF and a small E8 ORF that overlapped the E6 ORF. Serological responses to ROPV L1 viruslike particles (VLPs) were detected in rabbits infected at either the genital or oral mucosa with ROPV. The antibody response was specific to intact ROPV L1 VLP antigen, was first detected at the time of late regression, and persisted at high levels for several months after complete regression. Both oral and genital lesions regressed spontaneously, accompanied by a heavy infiltrate of lymphocytes. ROPV infection of rabbit genital mucosa is a useful model to study host immunological responses to genital papillomavirus infections. (+info)
Microscopic features of vaginal candidiasis and their relation to symptomatology.
OBJECTIVES: To document the microscopic features of vaginal candidiasis and to examine the relation between yeast morphology and patient symptomatology. METHOD: The study population comprised women undergoing screening for genital infection at a department of genitourinary medicine. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Data were collected on 267 women of whom 234 were found to have vaginal candidiasis by vaginal culture. The remaining 33 patients had microscopic features of candidiasis (spores and/or hyphae) but were culture negative. Of the culture positive women, microscopy was positive in 182 (78%). "Spores only" were identified in 65 (28%), "hyphae only" in 16 (7%), and both "spores and hyphae" in 101 (43%). 68% of culture positive women were symptomatic, the commonest symptoms being irritation alone (27%) or irritation plus vaginal discharge (25%). No association was found between yeast morphology (spores, budding/non-budding; hyphae, branching/non-branching) as identified on microscopy of vaginal secretions and symptomatology. (+info)
Diagnosis and treatment of atrophic vaginitis.
Up to 40 percent of postmenopausal women have symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. Because the condition is attributable to estrogen deficiency, it may occur in premenopausal women who take antiestrogenic medications or who have medical or surgical conditions that result in decreased levels of estrogen. The thinned endometrium and increased vaginal pH level induced by estrogen deficiency predispose the vagina and urinary tract to infection and mechanical weakness. The earliest symptoms are decreased vaginal lubrication, followed by other vaginal and urinary symptoms that may be exacerbated by superimposed infection. Once other causes of symptoms have been eliminated, treatment usually depends on estrogen replacement. Estrogen replacement therapy may be provided systemically or locally, but the dosage and delivery method must be individualized. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants, and participation in coitus may also be beneficial in the treatment of women with atrophic vaginitis. (+info)
Antifungal resistance in yeast vaginitis.
The increased number of vaginal yeast infections in the past few years has been a disturbing trend, and the scientific community has been searching for its etiology. Several theories have been put forth to explain the apparent increase. First, the recent widespread availability of low-dosage, azole-based over-the-counter antifungal medications for vaginal yeast infections encourages women to self-diagnose and treat, and women may be misdiagnosing themselves. Their vaginitis may be caused by bacteria, parasites or may be a symptom of another underlying health condition. As a result, they may be unnecessarily and chronically expose themselves to antifungal medications and encourage fungal resistance. Second, medical technology has increased the life span of seriously immune compromised individuals, yet these individuals are frequently plagued by opportunistic fungal infections. Long-term and intense azole-based antifungal treatment has been linked to an increase in resistant Candida and non-Candida species. Thus, the future of limiting antifungal resistance lies in identifying the factors promoting resistance and implementing policies to prevent it. (+info)