(1/182) Vaginal epithelioid angiosarcoma.
A case of epithelioid angiosarcoma of the vagina is described. Only five cases of angiosarcoma at this site have been reported, three of which followed radiotherapy for other gynaecological malignancies. None is described as an epithelioid angiosarcoma, an unusual and recently described variant which is readily confused with carcinoma. This is thought to be the first reported epithelioid angiosarcoma at this site and highlights the difficulties in diagnosis. (+info)
(2/182) Concordant induction of cyclin E and p21cip1 in differentiated keratinocytes by the human papillomavirus E7 protein inhibits cellular and viral DNA synthesis.
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21Cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21Cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21Cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We propose that an appropriately timed induction of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by HPV E7 in postmitotic cells enables S-phase reentry and HPV DNA amplification, whereas prematurely induced cyclin E stabilizes p21Cip1 protein, which then inhibits cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Consequently, cyclin E and p21Cip1 both fail to turn over, and DNA synthesis does not occur. (+info)
(3/182) Borderline malignant change in recurrent mullerian papilloma of the vagina.
Malignant change occurred in a benign, recurrent vaginal mullerian polyp. The patient, a 49 year old woman with cerebral palsy, presented with a polypoid mass in the vagina. At four years of age she had presented with a haemorrhagic polyp, and over the following years she had recurrent irregular bleeding and regrowth of the polypoidal mass, requiring a total of 10 operations to excise the polyp. Histological examination of the specimen showed typical mullerian features with tubal, endometrioid, and endocervical cell types. There were significantly abnormal nuclei, indicating low grade or borderline malignancy. Review of previous biopsies showed similar mullerian features but no atypia. This is the first reported case of borderline malignant change in a previously benign recurrent mullerian papilloma of the vagina. Definitive radical surgery or radiotherapy is contraindicated in this patient and she remains under follow up. (+info)
(4/182) Conservative treatment for girls with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the genital tract: A report from the Study Committee of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology.
PURPOSE: To report the results of a conservative multimodal approach in girls with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the genital tract, treated in International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors 84 and 89 protocols. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1984 to 1994, 38 girls with RMS of the genital tract (vulva, vagina, uterus) were treated in SIOP protocols. With the exception of patients with rare small tumors, which were resected at the start of the studies, all patients received initial chemotherapy (CHT) (ifosfamide, vincristine, and actinomycin D). Local treatment including surgery, brachytherapy (BT), and external-beam radiotherapy (ERT) was given only to girls who did not achieve complete remission (CR) with CHT or who subsequently relapsed. RESULTS: The primary tumor originated in the vulva or vagina in 27 girls and in the uterus in 11. The overall survival rate (+/- SE) was 91% +/- 6% at 5 years, and the event-free survival rate was 78% +/- 7%. At a median follow-up of 5 years, 30 girls were alive and in first CR and five were alive and in second CR. Four patients treated with complete resection of the tumor at diagnosis received less CHT. Thirteen patients were treated with CHT alone. In 17 patients, local treatment was necessary to achieve complete local control, for a residual mass after initial CHT (10 patients), for viable tumor on biopsy (three patients), or for local relapse (four patients). The local treatment used was radiotherapy (RT) (ERT in three patients, BT in seven), radical surgery with uterine ablation (three patients), RT and radical surgery (three patients), and conservative surgery with RT (one patient). CONCLUSION: Girls with nonmetastatic RMS of the genital tract have an excellent prognosis. We found no difference in outcome between uterine and vulvovaginal RMS. Local treatment does not seem necessary in patients who have a complete response to CHT. When a local treatment is needed, BT may be an alternative to radical surgery or ERT. (+info)
(5/182) Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of a novel human papillomavirus (Type 82) associated with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
The genome of a novel human papillomavirus (HPV-82) was cloned from a vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I. In our series of 291 biopsy specimens, HPV-82 was identified in one case each of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and grade III by blot hybridization. The histological localization of HPV-82 DNA in the three lesions was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The results indicated that HPV-82 is an etiologic agent for vaginal and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. By nucleotide sequence similarity of L1 open reading frame (ORF), HPV-82 was closely related to HPV-26, -51, and -69. To know the precise relationship between the HPVs, we determined the complete sequence of HPV-82, as well as that of HPV-69. Sequencing revealed that the four HPVs had no initiation codon in the E5 ORF and had extensive nucleotide sequence similarities in all ORFs. In addition, they exhibited unique frame position patterns for ORFs, different from those of the other genital HPVs. (+info)
(6/182) Ropivacaine and bupivacaine for long-term epidural infusion in a small child.
Ropivacaine is assumed to be less toxic than bupivacaine but there are no reports concerning its long-term use in paediatric anaesthesia. We report the use of ropivacaine for long-term epidural anaesthesia in a 21-month-old girl. In two consecutive periods of 3 days each, 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.5% or 0.75% ropivacaine were administered to facilitate painful vaginal brachytherapy. The mean dose of bupivacaine increased from 1.05 to 1.32 mg kg-1 h-1 and that of ropivacaine increased from 1.40 to 3.86 mg kg-1 h-1. No toxic side effects were observed. We conclude that both epidural ropivacaine and bupivacaine were effective and safe during long-term epidural anaesthesia in this particular case. However, the doses were potentially toxic and should therefore be used with extreme caution. (+info)
(7/182) Tamoxifen induces endometrial and vaginal cancer in rats in the absence of endometrial hyperplasia.
Tamoxifen was administered orally to neonatal rats on days 2-5 after birth and the subsequent effects on the uterus were characterized, morphometrically, over the following 12 months. Tamoxifen inhibited development of the uterus and glands in the endometrium, indicating a classical oestrogen antagonist action. Between 24 and 35 months after tamoxifen treatment there was a significant increase in the incidence (26%) of uterine adenocarcinomas and a 9% incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the vagina/cervix in the absence of any oestrogen agonist effect in the uterus. This demonstrates that an oestrogen agonist effect is not an absolute requirement for the carcinogenic effect of tamoxifen in the reproductive tract of the rat. The unopposed oestrogen agonist effect of tamoxifen on the endometrium may not be the only factor involved in the development of endometrial cancers. It is possible that tamoxifen causes these tumours via a genotoxic mechanism similar to that seen in rat liver. However, using (32)P-post-labelling we failed to find evidence of tamoxifen-induced DNA adducts in the uterus. Tamoxifen may affect hormonal imprinting of oestrogen receptor responses in stem cells of the uterus, causing reproductive tract cancers to arise at a later time, in the same way as has been proposed for diethylstilbestrol. If these rodent data extrapolate to humans, then women who are taking tamoxifen as a chemopreventative may have an increased risk of vaginal/cervical cancer, as well as endometrial cancer. (+info)
(8/182) Fibroleiomyomas of the tubular genitalia in female beluga whales.
Fibroleiomyomas of the tubular genitalia were diagnosed in 6 of 9 adult female beluga whales from the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada. These tumors were located in the vagina (6 of 6), the cervix (2 of 6), and the uterus (1 of 6). Endogenous hormones or xeno-estrogens may be implicated in the occurrence of these tumors. (+info)