Vaginal stenosis following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia.
We report the unusual complication of vaginal stenosis occurring after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukaemia. This was in all likelihood a manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), although the patient has no other stigmata of this and suffered little acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after BMT. Other risk factors for vaginal stenosis were considered and appear to be absent in this patient, although the total body irradiation used as part of her conditioning therapy may play a role. We suggest that vaginal stenosis may be under-reported, since female patients suffer a number of gynaecological complications after BMT, and that regular questioning and examination may aid in making an earlier diagnosis, allowing speedier instigation of therapy and thus improving quality of life. (+info)
Effect of 3-hydroxyphthaloyl-beta-lactoglobulin on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of the ongoing AIDS epidemic. Application of chemical barrier methods is expected to contribute to the worldwide control of this epidemic. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin modified by 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (3-hydroxyphthalovyl-beta-lactoglobulin [3HP-beta-LG]) was shown to inhibit HIV-1, HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Here, we show that 3HP-beta-LG not formulated into any vehicle protected three of six rhesus monkeys against vaginal infection by SIV. Incorporation of the compound into an appropriate vehicle is expected to increase the degree of protection. 3HP-beta-LG may be effective as a vaginal inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in humans. (+info)
Sexual functioning among stroke patients and their spouses.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess effects of stroke on sexual functioning of stroke patients and their spouses and to study the associations of clinical and psychosocial factors with poststroke changes in sexual functions. METHODS: One hundred ninety-two stroke patients and 94 spouses participating in stroke adjustment courses sponsored by the Finnish Stroke and Aphasia Federation completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning their prestroke and poststroke sexual functions and habits. The main outcome measures were (1) libido, (2) coital frequency, (3) sexual arousal, including erectile and orgastic ability and vaginal lubrication, and (4) sexual satisfaction. RESULTS: A majority of the stroke patients reported a marked decline in all the measured sexual functions, ie, libido, coital frequency, erectile and orgastic ability, and vaginal lubrication, as well as in their sexual satisfaction. The most important explanatory factors for these changes were the general attitude toward sexuality (odds ratio [OR] range, 7.4 to 21.9; logistic regression analysis), fear of impotence (OR, 6.1), inability to discuss sexuality (OR range, 6.8 to 18.5), unwillingness to participate in sexual activity (OR range, 3.1 to 5. 4), and the degree of functional disability (OR range, 3.2 to 5.0). The spouses also reported a significant decline in their libido, sexual activity, and sexual satisfaction as a consequence of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction with sexual life are common in both male and female stroke patients and in their spouses. Psychological and social factors seem to exert a strong impact on sexual functioning and the quality of sexual life after stroke. (+info)
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal specimens from female commercial sex workers using a new improved enzyme immunoassay.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a new improved enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens from female commercial sex workers, in comparison with a conventional EIA test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. METHODS: A high risk group of 163 female commercial sex workers who visited a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in order to undergo screening for major STDs, including chlamydial infection, were enrolled. A total of four swab specimens, including two vaginal and two endocervical specimens, were collected from each woman by a clinician. To identify C trachomatis, a new improved EIA kit (IDEIA PCE), a conventional EIA kit (IDEIA), and PCR assay (Amplicor) were used. Discrepancies in the results were resolved using supplementary PCR assay. A female patient was considered to be infected with C trachomatis if the IDEIA PCE test and PCR test for both sample sites (endocervical and vaginal) gave positive results. Following resolution of these discrepancies, relative sensitivity and specificity, confidence intervals, and predictive values for each type of specimen by each assay were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 163 women tested, 35 (21.5%) were shown to be infected with C trachomatis. The relative sensitivities in vaginal swab specimens were 88.8%, 68.6%, and 91.4% using IDEIA PCE, IDEIA, and PCR, respectively. The relative specificities in vaginal swab specimens were 99.2%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively. The relative sensitivities in endocervical swab specimens were 85.7%, 77.1%, and 91.4% with IDEIA PCE, IDEIA, and PCR, respectively. The relative specificities in endocervical swab specimens were all 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IDEIA PCE test on vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens were similar to those of PCR assay on the two types of specimen. It is concluded that IDEIA PCE test on vaginal swab specimens is an acceptable, sensitive, and less invasive approach for the detection of C trachomatis in commercial sex workers with a high prevalence of C trachomatis infection. (+info)
Maternal peripartum complications associated with vaginal group B streptococci colonization.
The study was done to determine the risk of clinically diagnosed intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and postpartum endometritis (PPE) associated with vaginal group B streptococci (GBS) colonization. Pregnant women were enrolled in a cross-sectional, observational study from 1992 to 1996 in Houston (n=908), Seattle (n=2676), and Pittsburgh (n=4338). Swab samples were obtained from the lower vagina of participants at admission for delivery and inoculated into selective broth and onto blood agar media. At the combined centers, 2.9% of the women (231/7922) had IAI, and 2.0% (157/7922) had PPE. The risk of IAI was higher for women with heavy GBS colonization (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-3.7) than for those with light colonization (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). The risk of GBS-associated PPE was not influenced by density of colonization (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7). These findings provide further evidence that GBS is associated with maternal intrapartum complications. (+info)
Vaginal changes and sexuality in women with a history of cervical cancer.
BACKGROUND: In women with cervical cancer, treatment causes changes in vaginal anatomy and function. The effect of these changes on sexual function and the extent, if any, to which they distress women are not known. METHODS: In 1996 and 1997, we attempted to contact 332 women with a history of early-stage cervical cancer (age range, 26 to 80 years) who had been treated in 1991 and 1992 at the seven departments of gynecological oncology in Sweden and 489 women without a history of cancer (controls) to ask them to answer an anonymous questionnaire about vaginal changes and sexual function. RESULTS: We received completed questionnaires from 256 of the women with a history of cervical cancer and 350 of the controls. A total of 167 of 247 women with a history of cancer (68 percent) and 236 of 330 controls (72 percent) reported that they had regular vaginal intercourse. Twenty-six percent of the women who had cancer and 11 percent of the controls reported insufficient vaginal lubrication for sexual intercourse, 26 percent of the women who had cancer and 3 percent of the controls reported a short vagina, and 23 percent of the women who had cancer and 4 percent of the controls reported an insufficiently elastic vagina. Twenty-six percent of the women who had cancer reported moderate or much distress due to vaginal changes, as compared with 8 percent of the women in the control group. Dyspareunia was also more common among the women who had cervical cancer. The frequency of orgasms and orgasmic pleasure was similar in the two groups. Among the women who had cervical cancer, the type of treatment received had little if any effect on the prevalence of specific vaginal changes. CONCLUSIONS: Women who have been treated for cervical cancer have persistent vaginal changes that compromise sexual activity and result in considerable distress. (+info)
Prior genital tract infection with a murine or human biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis protects mice against heterotypic challenge infection.
We sought to assess the degree of cross-protective immunity in a mouse model of chlamydial genital tract infection. Following resolution of genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis, mice were challenged intravaginally with either MoPn or human serovar E or L2. The majority of animals previously infected with MoPn were solidly immune to challenge with either of the two human biovars. Surprisingly, approximately 50% of animals became reinfected when homologously challenged with MoPn, although the secondary infection yielded significantly lower numbers of the organism isolated over a shorter duration than in the primary infection. Primary infection with serovar E also protected against challenge with MoPn or serovar L2, although the degree of immune protection was lower than that resulting from primary infection with MoPn. Blast transformation and assessment of delayed-type hypersensitivity indicated that mice previously infected with either human or murine biovars produced broadly cross-reactive T cells that recognized epitopes of either murine or human biovars of C. trachomatis. Immunoblotting demonstrated that primary MoPn infection produced immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to antigens of MoPn as well as at least three distinct antigenic components of human serovar E, one of which was identical in molecular weight to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Primary infection with serovar E produced IgG antibody reactive against serovar E but not MoPn MOMP and against at least one ca. 60-kDa protein of both chlamydial strains. Our results indicate that primary genital infection of mice with murine C. trachomatis induces immunity against challenge with either of two human biovars. (+info)
The role of gamma interferon in immune resistance to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.
We investigated the role of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a mouse model of immunity to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Within 8 h after immune mice were challenged intravaginally with HSV-2, IFN-gamma concentrations in vaginal secretions reached levels that can be antiviral in vitro. This rapid synthesis of IFN-gamma occurred in immune-challenged mice but not in nonimmune-challenged mice, indicating that it required memory T cells. Immunostaining and in situ hybridization revealed that the IFN-gamma was synthesized by cells whose morphological appearance suggested that they were lymphocytes and macrophage-like cells in the mucosa. The presence of IFN-gamma in vaginal secretions was correlated with upregulation of MHC class II antigens in the epithelium and with vigorous (30-fold) recruitment of T and B lymphocytes into the vagina. In vivo administration of anti-IFN-gamma to immune mice 17 h before virus challenge blocked the subsequent appearance of IFN-gamma in vaginal secretions, blocked upregulation of class II antigens, blocked adherence of T cells to endothelium and their recruitment into the vagina, and markedly reduced immunity against reinfection of the vaginal epithelium. (+info)