Characterization of a novel gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus from horses: description of Eremococcus coleocola gen. nov., sp. nov.
Two strains of an unknown Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus originating from the reproductive tract of horses were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that the two strains constitute a new subline within the lactic-acid group of bacteria, close to, but distinct from, Abiotrophia defectiva, Globicatella sanguinis and close relatives. The unknown bacterium was readily distinguished from other described Gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci by biochemical tests and electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as Eremococcus coleocola gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Eremococcus coleocola is CCUG 38207T. (+info)
Microscopic features of vaginal candidiasis and their relation to symptomatology.
OBJECTIVES: To document the microscopic features of vaginal candidiasis and to examine the relation between yeast morphology and patient symptomatology. METHOD: The study population comprised women undergoing screening for genital infection at a department of genitourinary medicine. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Data were collected on 267 women of whom 234 were found to have vaginal candidiasis by vaginal culture. The remaining 33 patients had microscopic features of candidiasis (spores and/or hyphae) but were culture negative. Of the culture positive women, microscopy was positive in 182 (78%). "Spores only" were identified in 65 (28%), "hyphae only" in 16 (7%), and both "spores and hyphae" in 101 (43%). 68% of culture positive women were symptomatic, the commonest symptoms being irritation alone (27%) or irritation plus vaginal discharge (25%). No association was found between yeast morphology (spores, budding/non-budding; hyphae, branching/non-branching) as identified on microscopy of vaginal secretions and symptomatology. (+info)
Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of different algorithms for the diagnosis of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women consulting health services for vaginal discharge in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Cross sectional study among 621 women with complaints of vaginal discharge in three city council clinics between April and August 1997. Women were interviewed and examined for symptoms and signs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Specimens were obtained for laboratory diagnosis of genital infections, HIV, and syphilis. The data were used to evaluate the Kenyan flow chart as well as several other generated algorithms. RESULTS: The mean age was 24 years and 334 (54%) were pregnant. The overall prevalence rates were: 50% candidiasis, 23% trichomoniasis, 9% bacterial vaginosis, 7% gonorrhoea, 9% chlamydia, 7% syphilis, and 22% HIV. In non-pregnant women, gonococcal and chlamydial infection was significantly associated with (1) demographic and behavioural risk markers such as being single, younger than 20 years, multiple sex partners in the previous 3 months; (2) symptom fever; and (3) signs including presence of yellow or bloody vaginal discharge, cervical mucopus, cervical erythema, and friability. Among pregnant women only young age, dysuria, and fever were significantly associated with cervical infection. However, none of these variables was either sensitive or specific enough for the diagnosis of cervical infection. Several algorithms were generated and applied to the study data. The algorithm including risk markers performed slightly better than the current Kenyan algorithm. CONCLUSION: STIs form a major problem in the Nairobi area and should be addressed accordingly. None of the tested algorithms for the treatment of vaginal discharge would constitute a marked improvement of the existing flow chart. Hence, better detection tools for the specific aetiology of vaginal discharge are urgently needed. (+info)
A new visual indicator of chlamydial cervicitis?
OBJECTIVES: To determine the usefulness of endocervical discharge opacity as a risk indicator for chlamydial infection in relation to two acknowledged visual indicators--yellow endocervical discharge and easily induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix. METHODS: Women from two family planning clinics, a therapeutic abortion clinic, and a university student health clinic (n = 1418 total) consented to a pelvic examination and chlamydia testing, and completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sexual behaviour, medical history, and symptoms. A case of chlamydia was defined as positive by culture or blocked enzyme immunoassay in an endocervical swab. RESULTS: The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the clinics was 6.3%. All three of the visual indicators--yellow endocervical discharge, easily induced bleeding, and opaque cervical discharge--were statistically significantly and independently associated with chlamydial infection (odds ratios 2.8, 2.3, and 2.9 respectively), independent of clinic type. Adjustment for the other visual indicators made little difference to the odds ratios. CONCLUSION: Opacity of endocervical discharge was at least as important as the other two commonly acknowledged indicators of chlamydial cervicitis--yellow endocervical discharge and easily induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix. (+info)
Influence of the normal menstrual cycle on vaginal tissue, discharge, and microflora.
The objective of this study was to examine genital tissue, vaginal fluid, and vaginal microbial flora at 3 phases of the menstrual cycle in asymptomatic women. Vaginal examinations were performed 3 times in 74 women: at the menstrual phase (days 1-5), the preovulatory phase (days 7-12), and the postovulatory phase (days 19-24). Flora of 50 women without bacterial vaginosis (BV) was analyzed separately from flora of 24 women with BV. The volume of vaginal discharge increased and the amount of cervical mucus decreased over the menstrual cycle. Among subjects without BV, the rate of recovery of any Lactobacillus changed little (range, 82% to 98%; P = .2); however, a small increase occurred in the rate of recovery of heavy (3+ to 4+ semiquantitative) growth of Lactobacillus over the menstrual cycle (P = .04). A linear decrease occurred in the rate of recovery of heavy growth of any non-Lactobacillus species, from 72% at days 1-5 to 40% at days 19-24 (P = .002). A linear decrease also occurred in the rate of recovery of Prevotella species, from 56% on days 1-5 to 28% on days 19-24 (P =. 007), while a small linear increase occurred in the rate of recovery of Bacteroides fragilis (P=.05). Among subjects with BV, the only significant change was an increase in the rate of recovery of Lactobacillus, from 33% at days 1-5 to 54% at days 19-24 (P = .008). Among all subjects, the rate of recovery of heavy growth of Lactobacillus increased over the menstrual cycle and, in contrast, the concentration of non-Lactobacillus species tended to be higher at menses, which is evidence that the vaginal flora becomes less stable at this time. (+info)
Syndromic management of vaginal discharge among women in a reproductive health clinic in India.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of the syndromic approach in the management of vaginal discharge among women attending a reproductive health clinic in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Women who sought services from the clinic and who had a complaint of vaginal discharge were interviewed, underwent a pelvic examination, and provided samples for laboratory investigations of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. Data analysis focused on the prevalence of infection and on the performance of the algorithm recommended by the national authorities for the management of vaginal discharge. RESULTS: The most common infection among 319 women was bacterial vaginosis (26%). At least one sexually transmitted infection was detected in 21.9% of women. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 12.2%; trichomoniasis 10%; syphilis 2.2%; N gonorrhoeae was not isolated. An algorithm based on risk assessment and speculum assisted clinical evaluation was not helpful in predicting cervical infections associated with C trachomatis (sensitivity 5% and PPV 9%). This algorithm was sensitive (95%) though not specific (22%) in selecting women for metronidazole therapy effective against bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis, and overtreatment was a problem (PPV 38%). The sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of this algorithm for the treatment of candidiasis were 46%, 98%, and 88% respectively. The cost per case assessed using the algorithm was $2 and the cost per infection correctly treated was $4.25. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cervical infection associated with C trachomatis was high among these "low risk" women. The syndromic approach is not an efficient tool for detecting this condition, and alternative approaches to evaluation and intervention are required. The syndromic management of vaginal discharge among women seeking family planning and other reproductive health services should focus on vaginal infections, thus enhancing quality of care and addressing women's concerns about their health. (+info)
Is Mycoplasma hominis a vaginal pathogen?
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of Mycoplasma hominis as a vaginal pathogen. DESIGN: Prospective study comprising detailed history, clinical examination, sexually transmitted infection (STI) and bacterial vaginosis screen, vaginal swabs for mycoplasmas and other organisms, follow up of bacterial vaginosis patients, and analysis of results using SPSS package. SETTING: Genitourinary medicine clinic, Royal Liverpool University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 1200 consecutive unselected new patients who had not received an antimicrobial in the preceding 3 weeks, and seen by the principal author, between June 1987 and May 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation of M. hominis isolation rate and colony count to: (a) vaginal symptoms and with the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) per high power field in the Gram stained vaginal smear in patients with a single condition--that is, candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, genital warts, chlamydial infection, or trichomoniasis, as well as in patients with no genital infection; (b) epidemiological characteristics of bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: 1568 diagnoses were made (the numbers with single condition are in parenthesis). These included 291 (154) cases of candidiasis, 208 (123) cases of bacterial vaginosis, 240 (93) with genital warts, 140 (42) chlamydial infections, 54 (29) cases of trichomoniasis, and 249 women with no condition requiring treatment. M. hominis was found in the vagina in 341 women, but its isolation rates and colony counts among those with symptoms were not significantly different from those without symptoms in the single condition categories. There was no association between M. hominis and the number of PMN in Gram stained vaginal smears whether M. hominis was present alone or in combination with another single condition. M. hominis had no impact on epidemiological characteristics of bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSION: This study shows no evidence that M. hominis is a vaginal pathogen in adults. (+info)
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluids and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.
The presence of both viral particles and antiviral mucosal proteins may represent critical determinants of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. In 60 HIV-1-infected women, concentrations of the innate mucosal protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), were lower in vaginal fluid samples from 17 women whose babies became infected than in samples from nontransmitting women (mean+/-SE, 57+/-11 vs. 557+/-177 ng/mL, respectively; P=.01). Rates of transmission among women with higher SLPI concentrations (>100 ng/mL) were lower than those among women with lower concentrations (<100 ng/mL; 8.7% vs. 40.5%, respectively; P=.01). Concentrations of other putative HIV-1-inhibitory innate immune factors were similar in both groups. Concentrations of vaginal HIV-1 tended to be higher in transmitting than in nontransmitting women (407 vs. 174 virions/mL; P=.09). Increased concentrations of selected innate mucosal immune factors, such as SLPI, seem to be associated with reduced rates of perinatal HIV-1 transmission and may contribute to natural antiretroviral defense. (+info)