Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparous women on neonatal intracranial injury.
BACKGROUND: Infants delivered by vacuum extraction or other operative techniques may be more likely to sustain major injuries than those delivered spontaneously, but the extent of the risk is unknown. METHODS: From a California data base, we identified 583,340 live-born singleton infants born to nulliparous women between 1992 and 1994 and weighing between 2500 and 4000 g. One third of the infants were delivered by operative techniques. We evaluated the relation between the mode of delivery and morbidity in the infants. RESULTS: Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 of 860 infants delivered by vacuum extraction, 1 of 664 delivered with the use of forceps, 1 of 907 delivered by cesarean section during labor, 1 of 2750 delivered by cesarean section with no labor, and 1 of 1900 delivered spontaneously. As compared with the infants delivered spontaneously, those delivered by vacuum extraction had a significantly higher rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 2.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.9), as did the infants delivered with the use of forceps (odds ratio, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 5.9) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 2.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.4), but the rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction did not differ significantly from that associated with forceps use (odds ratio for the comparison with vacuum extraction, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.2) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 0.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of intracranial hemorrhage is higher among infants delivered by vacuum extraction, forceps, or cesarean section during labor than among infants delivered spontaneously, but the rate among infants delivered by cesarean section before labor is not higher, suggesting that the common risk factor for hemorrhage is abnormal labor. (+info)
Rates for obstetric intervention among private and public patients in Australia: population based descriptive study.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk profile of women receiving public and private obstetric care and to compare the rates of obstetric intervention among women at low risk in these groups. DESIGN: Population based descriptive study. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. SUBJECTS: All 171,157 women having a live baby during 1996 and 1997. INTERVENTIONS: Epidural, augmentation or induction of labour, episiotomy, and births by forceps, vacuum, or caesarean section. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk profile of public and private patients, intervention rates, and the accumulation of interventions by both patient and hospital classification (public or private). RESULTS: Overall, the frequency of women classified as low risk was similar (48%) among those choosing private obstetric care and those receiving standard care in a public hospital. Among low risk women, rates of obstetric intervention were highest in private patients in private hospitals, lowest in public patients, and generally intermediate for private patients in public hospitals. Among primiparas at low risk, 34% of private patients in private hospitals had a forceps or vacuum delivery compared with 17% of public patients. For multiparas the rates were 8% and 3% respectively. Private patients were significantly more likely to have interventions before birth (epidural, induction or augmentation) but this alone did not account for the increased interventions at birth, particularly the high rates of instrumental births. CONCLUSIONS: Public patients have a lower chance of an instrumental delivery. Women should have equal access to quality maternity services, but information on the outcomes associated with the various models of care may influence their choices. (+info)
Assisted vaginal delivery using the vacuum extractor.
Vacuum extractors have replaced forceps for many situations in which assistance is required to achieve vaginal delivery. Compared with metal-cup vacuum extractors, soft-cup devices are easier to use and cause fewer neonatal scalp injuries; however, they detach more frequently. Vacuum extractors can cause neonatal injury. These devices should be employed when indicated, usually for a nonreassuring fetal heart tracing or failure to progress in the second stage of labor. Complications may be minimized if the physician recognizes contraindications to the use of vacuum extraction. Complete documentation is essential. (+info)
Comparison of maternal and infant outcomes between vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries.
The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study in the Canadian province of Quebec to assess the maternal and infant outcomes associated with vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries. The study database contains information on 305,391 mother-infant dyads (linked by a common institutional code and hospital chart number) for singleton live vaginal births with a nonbreech presentation at the gestational age of 37 or more completed weeks and a birth weight between 2,500 and 4,000 g during fiscal years 1991/1992 to 1995/1996. Of the births, 31,015 were delivered by vacuum extraction, and 18,727 were delivered by forceps. Compared with delivery by forceps, the adjusted risk ratios for third-/fourth-degree perineal laceration, intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or cerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cephalhematoma, and neonatal in-hospital death were 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.50), 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 2.25), 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.93), 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.16, 5.97), 5.44 (confidence interval: 1.26, 23.43), 2.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.89, 2.16), and 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.32, 2.70), respectively. The authors conclude that vacuum extraction causes less maternal trauma but may increase the risk of cephalhematoma and certain types of intracranial hemorrhage (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage). (+info)
Very early termination of pregnancy (menstrual extraction).
Very early termination of pregnancy was performed on 424 women in three London teaching hospitals. Altogether 90% of the women were no more than 14 days overdue, and 67% of these had histological evidence of pregnancy. The procedure differed little in technique or its acceptability to the patient from termination done later in the first trimester. The similar incidence of complications suggested that it is not an alternative to conventional contraception. The response of patients, general practitioners, and referral agencies, however, indicated that there is a definite need in the community for a very early termination service. (+info)
Morbidity of first trimester aspiration termination and the seniority of the surgeon.
Vacuum aspiration is a safe, acceptable, and efficacious method of first trimester pregnancy termination. The success and complication rates are thought to be partially dependent on operator experience and gestation. We examined this further by studying the outcome of 828 consecutive surgical abortions up to 13 weeks gestation in our hospital. The following outcomes were measured: surgical curettage for presumed retained products of conception; continuing pregnancy; uterine perforation; pelvic sepsis requiring intravenous antibiotics; and blood transfusion required. The complete abortion rate was 94.6% and the rate of continuing pregnancy 0.24%. There was a significant relationship between efficacy and seniority of the surgeon; consultants, senior registrars, registrars, and senior house officers had complete abortion rates of 97.8, 92.8, 94.7, and 88.4% respectively (P = 0.039). Parity did not affect efficacy. Terminations at 12-13 weeks gestation were associated with a significantly lower complete abortion rate. The rates of uterine perforation, blood transfusion, pelvic sepsis requiring intravenous antibiotics, and overnight hospital admission were 0.24, 0, 0.97, and 1.69% respectively. Thus, the only significant factors affecting outcome of surgical abortion are grade of operating surgeon or terminations performed at later gestations of 12-13 weeks. It is vital that physicians performing surgical terminations are adequately trained. (+info)
Septic shock resulting in death after operative delivery.
BACKGROUND: We report a young woman who developed septic shock after operative delivery in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Clinical features, treatment modalities and prognosis of this high-mortality-rate disorder are presented and discussed. CASE: A 24-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 1, was referred to our clinic in a confused state and immediately admitted to our emergency unit. She apparently had eclampsia antenatally. Termination of pregnancy with induction of labor and vacuum extraction had been employed in gestational week 32 of pregnancy. One day after delivery, her clinical and laboratory parameters worsened, so she was referred to our clinic. After a thorough physical examination and laboratory evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as having sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. After blood and urine cultures were taken, aggressive management included volume repletion, antibiotics and positive inotropic therapy. Because she had persistent fever and unimproved laboratory values despite these therapies, the uterus and ovaries were thought to be the source of sepsis, and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Neither clinical nor laboratory parameters improved, and the patient died 28 days after delivery as a result of respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: It is our purpose to emphasize that a rapid and appropriate decision for surgery may prevent the maternal mortality in obstetric septic shock patients. Successful management depends on early identification and aggressive treatment. (+info)
Vaginal misoprostol as medical treatment for first trimester spontaneous miscarriage.
BACKGROUND: Misoprostol is effective for cervical priming prior to suction evacuation in first trimester pregnancy termination. This is the first randomized study to compare vaginal misoprostol versus expectant treatment in women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage. METHODS: Sixty women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage were recruited to the study at the Queen Mary Hospital between 1998 and 1999. They were randomized to group 1: misoprostol; and group 2: expectant management. Women in the misoprostol group received vaginal misoprostol 400 microg on days 1, 3 and 5. The expectant group was followed up according to the same schedule. Suction evacuation was performed if there was excessive bleeding or abdominal pain; or if a gestational sac was detected by transvaginal scan on day 15. RESULTS: Fifty-nine women completed the trial. Those who did not require suction evacuation up to the time of return of normal menstruation were considered to be successful. The incidence of side-effects was comparable between the two groups. Three women in the expectant group and one in the misoprostol group underwent emergency suction evacuation because of excessive bleeding. The mean duration of vaginal bleeding was similar for both groups (14.6 days in the misoprostol group versus 15.0 days in the expectant group). The successful rate in the misoprostol group was significantly higher than that of the expectant group (83.3 versus 48.3%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We recommend repeated vaginal misoprostol 400 microg given on days 1, 3 and 5 as a treatment option for women with first trimester spontaneous miscarriage. (+info)