Back to basics: making a vacuum-formed, custom-fitted intraoral mouthguard using the "dry model" technique.
For a mouthguard to function properly, it must fit well. It is possible to produce a well-fitting mouthguard using the "dry model" technique, which is relatively inexpensive and easy to learn. Custom-fitted intraoral mouthguards help prevent or reduce the severity of concussions as well as minimize oral cavity injuries. (+info)
Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed products with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by use of challenge studies and predictive microbiological models.
Sixteen different types of sous vide-processed products were evaluated for safety with respect to nonproteolytic group II Clostridium botulinum by using challenge tests with low (2. 0-log-CFU/kg) and high (5.3-log-CFU/kg) inocula and two currently available predictive microbiological models, Food MicroModel (FMM) and Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). After thermal processing, the products were stored at 4 and 8 degrees C and examined for the presence of botulinal spores and neurotoxin on the sell-by date and 7 days after the sell-by date. Most of the thermal processes were found to be inadequate for eliminating spores, even in low-inoculum samples. Only 2 of the 16 products were found to be negative for botulinal spores and neurotoxin at both sampling times. Two products at the high inoculum level showed toxigenesis during storage at 8 degrees C, one of them at the sell-by date. The predictions generated by both the FMM thermal death model and the FMM and PMP growth models were found to be inconsistent with the observed results in a majority of the challenges. The inaccurate predictions were caused by the limited number and range of the controlling factors in the models. Based on this study, it was concluded that the safety of sous vide products needs to be carefully evaluated product by product. Time-temperature combinations used in thermal treatments should be reevaluated to increase the efficiency of processing, and the use of additional antibotulinal hurdles, such as biopreservatives, should be assessed. (+info)
Trained sensory panel and consumer evaluation of the effects of gamma irradiation on palatability of vacuum-packaged frozen ground beef patties.
The objectives for this experiment were to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on 1) the palatability of vacuum-packaged frozen ground beef patties by trained sensory panel and 2) consumer evaluation of the taste of hamburgers made with those patties. Boxes (4.5 kg) of frozen (-28 degrees C) ground beef patties (113.4 g/patty, 19% fat) from a commercial supplier were irradiated at a commercial gamma irradiation facility at one of three levels (0, 3.0, or 4.5 kGy). All boxes were stored at 28 degrees C for 27 to 29 d after irradiation before evaluation by a trained descriptive attribute sensory panel and for 62 to 104 d after irradiation before consumer evaluation. The trained panel evaluated grilled patties for ground beef aroma intensity, off-aroma, and off-flavor on 4-point scales (4 = intense, none, and none; 1 = none, intense, and intense, respectively) and ground beef flavor intensity, tenderness, and juiciness on 8-point scales (8 = extremely intense, tender, or juicy; 1 = extremely bland, tough, or dry). Control patties had more intense (P<.05) ground beef aroma (3.1 vs 2.6), less off-aroma (3.3 vs 2.6), and more intense ground beef flavor (4.9 vs. 4.3) than irradiated patties. However, there were no differences (P>.05) in any sensory trait between frozen ground beef patties treated with 3.0 or 4.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. There were no differences (P>.05) among treatments for tenderness (6.3, 6.6, and 6.7) or juiciness ratings (5.7, 5.9, and 5.9), respectively, for 0, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy. The consumers evaluated taste of a hamburger that included their choice of condiments on a 10-point scale (10 = excellent; 1 = terrible). Hamburgers made with patties treated with 4.5 kGy were rated lower (P<.05) in taste than hamburgers made with either control patties or those treated with 3.0 kGy (6.5, 6.6, and 6.2, respectively, for 0, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy); however, all doses were rated at some level of "fair." These results imply that hamburgers made from ground beef patties irradiated under the conditions of this experiment would encounter little, if any, consumer acceptance problems at the 3.0 kGy dose and only slightly greater problems at the 4.5 kGy dose. (+info)
Clostridium algidixylanolyticum sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, xylan-degrading, spore-forming bacterium.
A psychrotolerant Clostridium species was isolated from vacuum-packed, temperature-abused raw lamb. Colonies of this micro-organism on sheep-blood agar were circular with an entire margin, grey-white, translucent and beta-haemolytic. Cells were single, tapered, motile rods. Elliptical subterminal spores were produced in the late stationary growth phase. Spores did not cause swelling of the maternal cells. The micro-organism was obligately anaerobic. In peptone yeast extract glucose starch (PYGS) broth at pH 7.0, the micro-organism grew optimally between 25.5 and 30.0 degrees C. The temperature range for growth was 2.5-32.2 degrees C. At 26 degrees C, the micro-organism grew optimally at pH 6.8 to 7.0. The pH range for anaerobic growth was 4.7-9.1. The micro-organism was saccharoclastic, hydrolysed starch and degraded xylan. The fermentation products formed in PYGS broth were acetate, formate, lactate, ethanol, butyrate, butanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The G + C content of the DNA was 38.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the strain belongs to cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium (sensu Collins et al. 1994). The new strain differed from phylogenetically related clostridia in terms of cellular fatty acid composition, soluble protein profiles and phenotypic properties. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characterization data, the strain was assigned to a new species, namely Clostridium algidixylanolyticum. The type strain is strain SPL73T (= DSM 12273T). (+info)
Reaction coordinates of biomolecular isomerization.
Transition path sampling has been applied to the molecular dynamics of the alanine dipeptide in vacuum and in aqueous solution. The analysis shows that more degrees of freedom than the traditional dihedral angles, phi and psi, are necessary to describe the reaction coordinates for isomerization of this molecule. In vacuum, an additional dihedral angle is identified as significant. In solution, solvent variables are shown to play a significant role, and this role appears to be more specific than can be captured by friction models. Implications for larger molecules are discussed. (+info)
Clostridium gasigenes sp. nov., a psychrophile causing spoilage of vacuum-packed meat.
Two psychrophilic Clostridium strains, DB1AT and R26, were isolated from incidences of 'blown-pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled lamb. Vacuum packs of meat inoculated with these strains developed gas bubbles and pack distension within 14 d storage at 2 degrees C. The two main gases responsible for pack distension were carbon dioxide and hydrogen. 1-Butanol, butyric and acetic acid and butyl esters were the major volatile compounds produced by the strains in the artificially inoculated packs. The unknown strains were Gram-positive motile rods producing elliptical subterminal spores during the late-stationary growth phase. At pH 7.0, they grew from -1.5 to 26 degrees C, and their optimum growth temperature was 20-22 degrees C. At 20 degrees C, the pH range for growth was 5.4-8.9 and the optimum pH for growth was 6.2-8.6. In peptone/yeast extract broth, the organisms grew little or not at all in the absence of fermentable carbohydrates. Both strains hydrolysed gelatin, aesculin and starch. The fermentation products formed in peptone yeast extract glucose starch broth were ethanol, acetate, butyrate, lactate, butanol, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The G+C contents of the DNA of strains DB1AT and R26 were 29.4 and 28.3 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the strains belong to cluster I of the genus Clostridium (sensu Collins et al. 1994). The new strains differed from the phylogenetically related clostridia in cellular fatty acid composition, soluble protein profiles and phenotypic properties. On the basis of rDNA analysis and phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization, the strains were assigned to a new species for which the name Clostridium gasigenes is proposed. Strain DB1AT (= DSM 12272T) is designated as the type strain. (+info)
Lactobacillus algidus sp. nov., a psychrophilic lactic acid bacterium isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated beef.
Lactobacillus algidus sp. nov. is described on the basis of 40 strains isolated as one of the predominant bacteria from five specimens of vacuum-packaged beef collected from different meat shops and stored at 2 degrees C for 3 weeks. These strains were quite uniform in the overall characteristics examined. They are facultatively anaerobic, psychrophilic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, lactic acid-homofermentative rods. The cells occurred singly and in pairs on agar media and in rather long chains in broth media. They differed in several cultural and biochemical characteristics from the authentic meso-diaminopimelic acid-positive or psychrophilic lactic acid bacteria in the genera Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium and Brochothrix. The SDS-PAGE whole-cell protein pattern was clearly distinctive. DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA also failed to associate these strains closely with any of the validly described organisms used. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains are rather remotely but most closely related to Lactobacillus mali (93% sequence similarity), which belongs to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Therefore, these strains should be included in the genus Lactobacillus and considered to represent a new species, Lactobacillus algidus sp. nov. The type strain is M6A9T (= JCM 10491T). (+info)
Alterations in the determinants of diastolic suction during pacing tachycardia.
In cardiomyocytes, generation of restoring forces (RFs) responsible for elastic recoil involves deformation of the sarcomeric protein titin in conjunction with shortening below slack length. At the left ventricular (LV) level, recoil and filling by suction require contraction to an end-systolic volume (ESV) below equilibrium volume (Veq) as well as large-scale deformations, for example, torsion or twist. Little is known about RFs and suction in the failing ventricle. We undertook a comparison of determinants of suction in open-chest dogs previously subjected to 2 weeks of pacing tachycardia (PT) and controls. To assess the ability of the LV to contract below Veq, we used a servomotor to clamp left atrial pressure and produce nonfilling diastoles, allowing measurement of fully relaxed pressure at varying volumes. We quantified twist with sonomicrometry. We also assessed transmural ratios of N2B to N2BA titin isoforms and total titin to myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein. In PT, the LV did not contract below Veq, even with marked reduction of volume (end-diastolic pressure [EDP], 1 to 2 mm Hg), whereas in controls ESV was less than Veq when EDP was less than approximately 5 mm Hg. In PT, both systolic twist and diastolic untwisting rate were reduced, and there was exaggerated transmural variation in titin isoform and titin-to-MHC ratios, consistent with the more extensible N2BA being present in larger amounts in the subendocardium. Thus, in PT, determinants of suction at the level of the LV are markedly impaired. The altered transmural titin isoform gradient is consistent with a decrease in RFs and may contribute to these findings. (+info)