Cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. For travelers, the risk of developing cholera per month of stay in a developing country is approximately 0.001%-0.01%, and cholera may present as traveler's diarrhea. In the United States, only a poorly tolerated, marginally effective, parenterally administered, phenol-inactivated vaccine is available. Outside the United States, 2 additional vaccines are commercially available: an oral killed whole cell-cholera toxin recombinant B subunit vaccine (WC-rBS) and an oral live attenuated Vibrio cholerae vaccine (CVD 103-HgR). These oral vaccines are well tolerated. In field trials, WC-rBS provides 80%-85% protection from cholera caused by V. cholerae serogroup O1 for at least 6 months. In volunteer studies, CVD 103-HgR provides 62%-100% protection against cholera caused by V. cholerae for at least 6 months. No commercially available cholera vaccine protects against disease caused by V. cholerae serogroup O139. New cholera vaccines are being developed. (+info)
Preconception immunization with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein vaccine improves pregnancy outcome in a guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection.
The guinea pig (gp) model of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was used to evaluate a gpCMV glycoprotein vaccine. Hartley guinea pigs were immunized 3 times with 50 microg of lectin column-purified glycoproteins prepared from gpCMV-infected or -uninfected tissue culture. Immunization with the gpCMV vaccine produced seroconversion in all animals. Animals then were placed with gpCMV-seronegative male animals and were challenged late in pregnancy with virulent salivary gland-passaged gpCMV. Immunization with gpCMV glycoproteins significantly improved pregnancy outcome, with 54 of 63 pups live-born in immunized animals, compared with 21 of 48 in the controls (P<.001). In addition, virus was isolated from 24 of 54 live-born pups born to immunized mothers, compared with 16 of 20 live-born pups born to controls, indicating that immunization significantly reduced in utero transmission in surviving animals (P<.01). (+info)
Vaccination of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with preS2/S envelope protein is not associated with the emergence of envelope escape mutants.
PreS2/S vaccination of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers led to a reduction in HBV replication or clearance of virus in 30% of treated patients. This study assessed whether vaccinotherapy of chronic HBV carriers induced the selection of escape mutants in the envelope 'a' determinant and whether envelope genetic variability might affect the response to vaccination. No amino acid differences were observed in the 'a' determinant between sequences obtained before and after treatment (five responders and seven non-responders). However, alignment with HBV prototype sequences revealed seven amino acid changes. Two mutations (T140S and P127L) diverged from subtype variations. In the complete envelope sequence (five non-responders and five responders), ten amino acid modifications were detected between sequences obtained before and after treatment. The absence of any common mutations did not enable the definition of a hot spot of mutations implicated in the response to vaccination. Moreover, vaccinotherapy does not induce the selection of escape mutants in the 'a' determinant. (+info)
High-yield expression of a viral peptide vaccine in transgenic plants.
A high-yield production of a peptide vaccine in transgenic plants is described here. A 21-mer peptide, which confers protection to dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus, has been expressed in transgenic plants as an amino-terminal translational fusion with the GUS gene. Transformants were selected on the basis of their GUS activities, showing expression levels of the recombinant protein up to 3% of the total leaf soluble protein, a production yield comparable to that obtained with the same epitope expressed by chimeric plant viruses. The immunogenicity of the plant-derived peptide was demonstrated in mice immunized either intraperitoneally or orally with transgenic plant extracts, providing the suitability of the GUS fusions approach for low-cost production of peptide vaccines. (+info)
Short report: Antibody responses of mice immunized with a tetravalent dengue recombinant protein subunit vaccine.
Recombinant proteins containing the B domain of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 fused to the maltose binding protein (MBP) of Escherichia coli were evaluated individually and as a tetravalent vaccine candidate in mice. Sera from mice immunized with monovalent DEN-MBP recombinant protein vaccines developed high titers of serotype homologous antibody in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the plaque-reduction neutralization test. Cross-reactive antibody titers were either several dilutions lower or not detectable. Sera from mice immunized with the tetravalent DEN subunit vaccine neutralized all 4 DEN viruses in the plaque-reduction neutralization test. The neutralizing antibody titers to each individual serotype were significantly greater than any cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers induced by the monovalent vaccines, providing evidence that the tetravalent DEN recombinant subunit vaccine produced specific neutralizing antibody to all 4 serotypes of dengue virus. (+info)
Evaluation of a prototype sub-unit vaccine against equine arteritis virus comprising the entire ectodomain of the virus large envelope glycoprotein (G(L)): induction of virus-neutralizing antibody and assessment of protection in ponies.
An Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant protein (6hisG(L)ecto) comprising the entire ectodomain (aa 18-122) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) glycoprotein G(L), the immunodominant viral antigen, induced higher neutralizing antibody titres than other G(L)-derived polypeptides when compared in an immunization study in ponies. The potential of the recombinant G(L) ectodomain to act as a sub-unit vaccine against EAV was evaluated further in three groups of four ponies vaccinated with doses of 35, 70 or 140 microg of protein. All vaccinated animals developed a virus-neutralizing antibody (VNAb) response with peak titres 1-2 weeks after the administration of a booster on week 5 (VNAb titres of 1.8-3.1), 13 (VNAb titres of 1.4-2.9) or 53 (VNAb titres of 1.2-2.3). Vaccinated and unvaccinated control ponies were infected with EAV at different times post-vaccination to obtain information about the degree of protection relative to the levels of pre-challenge VNAb. Vaccination conferred varying levels of protection, as indicated by reduced or absent pyrexia, viraemia and virus excretion from the nasopharynx. The degree of protection correlated well with the levels of pre-challenge VNAb and, in particular, with levels of virus excretion. These results provide the first evidence that a sub-unit vaccine protects horses against EAV. The use of the sub-unit vaccine in combination with a differential diagnostic test based on other EAV antigens would enable serological discrimination between naturally infected and vaccinated equines. (+info)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120-specific antibodies in neonates receiving an HIV-1 recombinant gp120 vaccine.
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected mothers were immunized at birth and at ages 4, 12, and 20 weeks with low-, medium-, or high-dose recombinant gp120 vaccine with MF59 adjuvant (HIV-1(SF-2); n=52) or with MF59 alone as a placebo (n=9). An accelerated schedule (birth and ages 2, 8, and 20 weeks) was used for an additional 10 infants receiving the defined optimal dose and for 3 infants receiving placebo. At 24 weeks, anti-gp120 ELISA titers were greater for vaccine-immunized than for placebo-immunized infants on both schedules, and 87% of vaccinees had a vaccine-induced antibody response. At 12 weeks, antibody titers of infants on the accelerated vaccine schedule exceeded those of infants receiving placebo (4949 vs. 551; P=.01), and 63% of the vaccinees met the response criteria. Thus, an accelerated schedule of gp120 vaccinations generated an antibody response to HIV-1 envelope distinct from transplacental maternal antibody by age 12 weeks. These results provide support for further studies of vaccine strategies to prevent mother-to-infant HIV-1 transmission. (+info)
Cholera is an enteric disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), a type 4 pilus expressed by V. cholerae, is a cholera virulence factor that is required for host colonization. The TCP polymer is composed of subunits of TcpA pilin. Antibodies directed against TcpA are protective in animal models of cholera. While natural or recombinant forms of TcpA are difficult to purify to homogeneity, it is anticipated that synthesized TcpA peptides might serve as immunogens in a subunit vaccine. We wanted to assess the potential for effects of the immune response (Ir) gene that could complicate a peptide-based vaccine. Using a panel of mice congenic at the H-2 locus we tested the immunogenicity of TcpA peptide sequences (peptides 4 to 6) found in the carboxyl termini of both the classical (Cl) and El Tor (ET) biotypes of TCP. Cl peptides have been shown to be immunogenic in CD-1 mice. Our data clearly establish that there are effects of the Ir gene associated with both biotypes of TcpA. These effects are dynamic and dependent on the biotype of TcpA and the haplotypes of the host. In addition to the effects of the classic class II Ir gene, class I (D, L) or nonclassical class I (Qa-2) may also affect immune responses to TcpA peptides. To overcome the effects of the class II Ir gene, multiple TcpA peptides similar to peptides 4, 5, and 6 could be used in a subunit vaccine formulation. Identification of the most protective B-cell epitopes of TcpA within a particular peptide and conjugation to a universal carrier may be the most effective method to eliminate the effects of the class II and class I Ir genes. (+info)