Recombinant rinderpest vaccines expressing membrane-anchored proteins as genetic markers: evidence of exclusion of marker protein from the virus envelope.
Rinderpest virus (RPV) causes a severe disease of cattle resulting in serious economic losses in parts of the developing world. Effective control and elimination of this disease require a genetically marked rinderpest vaccine that allows serological differentiation between animals that have been vaccinated against rinderpest and those which have recovered from natural infection. We have constructed two modified cDNA clones of the vaccine strain RNA genome of the virus, with the coding sequence of either a receptor site mutant form of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene or a membrane-anchored form of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (ANC-GFP), inserted as a potential genetic marker. Infectious recombinant virus was rescued in cell culture from both constructs. The RPVINS-HA and RPVANC-GFP viruses were designed to express either the HA or ANC-GFP protein on the surface of virus-infected cells with the aim of stimulating a strong humoral antibody response to the marker protein. In vitro studies showed that the marker proteins were expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells, although to different extents, but neither was incorporated into the envelope of the virus particles. RPVINS-HA- or RPVANC-GFP-vaccinated cattle produced normal levels of humoral anti-RPV antibodies and significant levels of anti-HA or anti-GFP antibodies, respectively. Both viruses were effective in stimulating protective immunity against RPV and antibody responses to the marker protein in all animals when tested in a cattle vaccination trial. (+info)
Generation of a candidate live marker vaccine for equine arteritis virus by deletion of the major virus neutralization domain.
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is an enveloped plus-strand RNA virus of the family Arteriviridae (order Nidovirales) that causes respiratory and reproductive disease in equids. Protective, virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAb) elicited by infection are directed predominantly against an immunodominant region in the membrane-proximal domain of the viral envelope glycoprotein G(L), allowing recently the establishment of a sensitive peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on this particular domain (J. Nugent et al., J. Virol. Methods 90:167-183, 2000). By using an infectious cDNA we have now generated, in the controlled background of a nonvirulent virus, a mutant EAV from which this immunodominant domain was deleted. This virus, EAV-G(L)Delta, replicated to normal titers in culture cells, although at a slower rate than wild-type EAV, and caused an asymptomatic infection in ponies. The antibodies induced neutralized the mutant virus efficiently in vitro but reacted poorly to wild-type EAV strains. Nevertheless, when inoculated subsequently with virulent EAV, the immunized animals, in contrast to nonvaccinated controls, were fully protected against disease; replication of the challenge virus occurred briefly at low though detectable levels. The levels of protection achieved suggest that an immune effector mechanism other than VNAb plays an important role in protection against infection. As expected, infection with EAV-G(L)Delta did not induce a measurable response in our G(L)-peptide ELISA while the challenge infection of the animals clearly did. EAV-G(L)Delta or similar mutants are therefore attractive marker vaccine candidates, enabling serological discrimination between vaccinated and wild-type virus-infected animals. (+info)
Chimeric porcine circoviruses (PCV) containing amino acid epitope tags in the C terminus of the capsid gene are infectious and elicit both anti-epitope tag antibodies and anti-PCV type 2 neutralizing antibodies in pigs.