Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection.
Cats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore, virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in a Crandell feline kidney cell-based neutralization assay, but not in a neutralization assay based on primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Despite the induction of these FIV-specific responses, vaccinated cats were not protected. Instead, accelerated virus replication was found, an observation similar to what previous experiments using other vaccine candidates have shown. Here, the results of the present study are discussed in the light of enhancement of lentivirus infections as a complicating factor in lentivirus vaccine development. (+info)
Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus.
The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA. It has been demonstrated that IPV vaccination is able to induce strong memory IgA responses in the serum of persons who have been naturally exposed to wild-type poliovirus. This has led to the hypothesis that IPV vaccination is able to induce poliovirus-specific IgA at mucosal sites in persons who have been previously primed with live poliovirus at mucosal sites. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of the IgA response in serum and saliva after IPV vaccination were examined in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or IPV. ELISA and enzyme-linked immunospot assays were used for the detection of poliovirus-specific IgA responses. In addition, B cell populations were separated on the basis of the expression of mucosal (alpha4beta7 integrin) and peripheral homing receptors (L-selectin). Parenteral IPV vaccination was able to boost systemic and mucosal IgA responses in previously OPV-vaccinated persons only. None of the previously vaccinated IPV recipients responded with the production of IgA in saliva. In agreement with this finding, a large percentage of the poliovirus-specific IgA-producing lymphocytes detected in previous OPV recipients expressed the alpha4beta7 integrin. It is concluded that IPV vaccination alone is insufficient to induce a mucosal IgA response against poliovirus. In mucosally (OPV-) primed individuals, however, booster vaccination with IPV leads to a strong mucosal IgA response. (+info)
Effectiveness of a vaccine against red sea bream iridoviral disease in a field trial test.
Since 1990, red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) has caused high mortalities in the summertime in cultured red sea bream Pagrus major in southwest Japan. To establish control measures for red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD), the effectiveness of a formalin-killed viral vaccine was evaluated in a field trial. Two groups each consisting of 1000 juvenile red sea bream were either intraperitoneally inoculated with vaccine (vaccinated group) or were not vaccinated (non-vaccinated group). After vaccination, the fish were held for 1 wk, then transferred to a marine net pen and observed for 12 wk. The cumulative mortalities caused by RSIVD in the vaccinated group or control group were 19.2 and 68.5%, respectively. Additionally, the presence of virus antigen in the spleen was investigated and body weight was measured 6 and 12 wk post vaccination. In the vaccinated group, viral antigen was not detected. The increase in body weight of vaccinated fish was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of control fish. These results suggest that the vaccine against RSIVD was effective in 1 field trial. (+info)
A mouse model for the evaluation of pathogenesis and immunity to influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans.
During 1997 in Hong Kong, 18 human cases of respiratory illness, including 6 fatalities, were caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Since H5 viruses had previously been isolated only from avian species, the outbreak raised questions about the ability of these viruses to cause severe disease and death in humans. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to these viruses, we have used the BALB/c mouse model. Four H5N1 viruses replicated equally well in the lungs of mice without prior adaptation but differed in lethality for mice. H5N1 viruses that were highly lethal for mice were detected in multiple organs, including the brain. This is the first demonstration of an influenza A virus that replicates systemically in a mammalian species and is neurotropic without prior adaptation. The mouse model was also used to evaluate a strategy of vaccination against the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, using an inactivated vaccine prepared from nonpathogenic A/Duck/Singapore-Q/F119-3/97 (H5N3) virus that was antigenically related to the human H5N1 viruses. Mice administered vaccine intramuscularly, with or without alum, were completely protected from lethal challenge with H5N1 virus. Protection from infection was also observed in 70% of animals administered vaccine alone and 100% of mice administered vaccine with alum. The protective effect of vaccination correlated with the level of virus-specific serum antibody. These results suggests a strategy of vaccine preparedness for rapid intervention in future influenza pandemics that uses antigenically related nonpathogenic viruses as vaccine candidates. (+info)
Intranasal administration of peptide vaccine protects human/mouse radiation chimera from influenza infection.
Influenza virus is characterized by frequent and unpredictable changes of the surface glycoproteins which enable the virus to escape the immune system. Approved vaccines which consist of the whole virus or the surface glycoproteins fail to induce broad specificity protection. We have previously reported that a peptide-based experimental recombinant vaccine which includes conserved epitopes of B and T lymphocytes was efficient in mice, leading to cross-strain, long-term protection. In the present study, this approach was adapted for the design of a human vaccine, based on epitopes recognized by the prevalent HLAs. These epitopes were expressed in Salmonella flagellin and tested for their efficacy in human/mouse radiation chimera in which human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are functionally engrafted. The vaccinated mice demonstrated clearance of the virus after challenge and resistance to lethal infection. The production of virus-specific human antibodies was also higher in this group. Control groups of either non-vaccinated, or vaccinated mice which had not been engrafted with the human PBMC, did not exhibit the protective immune response. FACS analysis showed that most human cells in the transplanted mice are CD8(+) and CD4(+). Hence, it may be concluded: (i) that the protection involves cellular mechanisms, but is most probably accomplished without direct lysis of influenza-infected pulmonary cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but rather via a cytokine-mediated mechanism, (ii) that the human/mouse radiation chimera model may be of some value in the investigation of new vaccines, as an additional tool prior to clinical trials, and (iii) that the synthetic recombinant vaccine can induce a response in the human immune system and confers protection against influenza infection. Further investigation is needed to establish the efficacy of such a peptide vaccine in human subjects. (+info)
A new Vero cell rabies vaccine: results of a comparative trial with human diploid cell rabies vaccine in children.
We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a chromatographically purified rabies vaccine (CPRV) compared with human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV) after pre-exposure immunizations (both primary and booster). Intramuscular doses of either 0.5 mL of CPRV or 1.0 mL of HDCV were given to 400 schoolchildren on days 0, 7, 28, and 365 (booster). Adequate titers of antibody (> or = 0.15 IU/mL, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) were observed in serum samples from all children 14 days after primary immunization with CPRV and HDCV; the antibodies persisted in all but one child up until 1 year. Fourteen days after the primary immunization series (day 42) and 7 days after booster immunization (day 372), all children had antibody titers of > or = 0.5 IU/mL. Local and systemic reactions after primary and booster immunizations occurred significantly less frequently in the CPRV group. A severe allergic reaction (angioedema) was reported in only one child after booster immunization with HDCV. CPRV has adequate immunogenicity for primary and booster pre-exposure immunizations in children and has a better safety profile than does HDCV. (+info)
Phenotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 cell-mediated immune responses after treatment with an HIV-1 immunogen.
It was hypothesized that immune recognition could be stimulated with combined immune-based and potent antiviral drug therapies. This study examined human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific lymphocyte proliferation before and after treatment with an inactivated HIV-1 immunogen in 15 chronically infected HIV-1 seropositive subjects. Lymphocyte proliferation to the immunizing antigen (gp120-depleted HIV-1; P<.001), purified native p24 (P<.001), and recombinant p24 (P<.05) increased after treatment with the HIV-specific immune-based therapy. By HIV-1 antigen-specific flow cytometry, T helper CD4 lymphocytes, CD8 lymphocytes, and NK cells (all P<.001) were the predominant cell types proliferating in vitro after treatment. Additional phenotyping of proliferating cells revealed predominantly CD4 and CD8 memory (both P<.001) phenotypes. This study supports the concept that in vitro lymphocyte proliferation to HIV-1 antigens, augmented after treatment with an inactivated HIV-1 immunogen, involves primarily CD4 and CD8 cell memory immune responses. (+info)
Cellular and acellular pertussis vaccines in adults.
Immunization against pertussis after childhood previously was considered unnecessary, because severe illness and complications rarely developed in older persons. The rising incidence of pertussis among older adolescents and adults and the transmission of infection from adults to infants suggest that booster immunization may be necessary to more effectively control pertussis in all age groups. Whole cell pertussis vaccines are regarded as unsuitable for routine use in adults because of reports of frequent moderate to severe reactogenicity at the injection site and occasional systemic reactions. The introduction of safe and effective acellular pertussis vaccines provides us with an opportunity to reconsider booster immunization of adolescents and adults. Several vaccines containing purified component(s) of Bordetella pertussis have been well tolerated and highly immunogenic when given to healthy adults. A clear understanding of the impact of pertussis in adolescents and adults will help to define the need for booster immunization after childhood. (+info)