Effect of obesity and erect/supine posture on lateral cephalometry: relationship to sleep-disordered breathing.
Craniofacial and upper airway anatomy, obesity and posture may all play a role in compromising upper airway patency in patients with the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity, facial structure and severity of sleep-disordered breathing using lateral cephalometric measurements and to assess the effect of body posture on cephalometric measurements of upper airway calibre variables in obese and non-obese subjects. Lateral cephalometry was carried out in erect and supine postures in 73 awake male subjects randomly selected from patients referred for polysomnography who had a wide range of apnoea/hypopnoea frequencies (1-131 events x h sleep(-1)). Subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg x m(-2); n=42) and obese (BMI > or = 30 kg x m(-2); n=31) groups. Significant but weak correlations were found between apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and measurements reflecting upper airway dimensions: uvular protrusion-posterior pharyngeal wall (r=-0.26, p<0.05) and hyoid-posterior pharyngeal wall (r=0.26, p<0.05). Multiple regression using both upper airway dimensions improved the correlation to AHI (r=0.34, p=0.01). Obese subjects had greater hyoid-posterior pharyngeal wall distances than non-obese subjects, both erect (42+/-5 versus 39+/-4 mm, respectively (mean+/-SD) p<0.01) and supine (43+/-5 versus 40+/-4 mm, p<0.05). Skeletal craniofacial structure was similar in obese and non-obese subjects. In conclusion, measurements reflecting upper airway size were correlated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Differences in upper airway size measurements between obese and non-obese subjects were independent of bony craniofacial structure. (+info)
Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning. (+info)
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in hereditary gelsolin-related amyloidosis.
Gelsolin-related amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, reported worldwide in kindreds carrying a G654A or G654T gelsolin gene mutation. The main clinical signs are cutis laxa, cranial and peripheral neuropathy, and corneal lattice dystrophy but heavy intermittent snoring also occurs. To evaluate whether sleep apnoea is present we performed nocturnal sleep recordings, cephalometric and spirometric analyses and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) in five snoring patients with a G654A gelsolin gene mutation. Four patients had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) with redundant oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal soft tissues, macroglossia and cranial neuromuscular dysfunction. The fifth patient had hypersomnia without obstructive sleep apnoea. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was an effective treatment. This study presents the first evidence in favour of an association between AGel amyloidosis and OSAS, but further studies are needed to define the prevalence of OSAS and the pathogenetic roles of amyloid and variant gelsolin in its evolution. (+info)
Prospective audit of a respiratory sleep disorders service at District General Hospital level.
This study was designed to examine the organisation and outcomes of a District General Hospital respiratory sleep service, since data are lacking on the management of sleep-disordered breathing at this level. Questionnaires and case-notes review were used to assess the management of 119 consecutive patients referred with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. Patients diagnosed with sleep-disordered breathing were assigned nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), ear/nose/throat (ENT) surgery or simple measures (e.g., weight loss). There were six non-attenders. At 12 months follow-up, 33 patients had been assigned to nCPAP, 25 to ENT surgery, and 37 to simple measures. Of the remainder, nine had alternative diagnoses, two were still being assessed and seven were lost to follow-up. Patients prescribed nCPAP (81% compliance) had significant symptomatic improvements with low dissatisfaction rates (20%); patients on simple measures did not improve (33% dissatisfied); only half assigned surgery had it performed, with 42% awaiting surgery and dissatisfied. Interspecialty referral resulted in major delays (mean 16 weeks). Referral letters were generally unhelpful in deciding on the appropriateness of initial referral (respiratory physician vs ENT). nCPAP was generally effective in improving symptoms, with a high level of patient satisfaction, while simple measures did not improve symptoms and were associated with lower satisfaction levels. Waiting times to ENT surgery can be long and patients express significant dissatisfaction. Referral letters are not useful in directing initial referral. Services should be co-ordinated between respiratory and ENT specialties to reduce waiting times and improve patient satisfaction. (+info)
Hypersomnia following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for snoring.
This report describes three cases who underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe snoring and who subsequently developed progressive excessive daytime sleepiness. All three cases were shown to have sleep fragmentation as a result of non-apnoeic episodic upper airway narrowing. These cases raise the possibility that increased upper airway resistance during sleep may be exacerbated or even caused by uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Ideally, sleep-disordered breathing should be carefully excluded before this surgery is offered as treatment for severe snoring. (+info)
Unpredictable results of laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea.
BACKGROUND: Laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP) is increasingly offered for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), although there is a lack of objective data to support its indications and efficacy. A study was undertaken to determine the treatment response to LAUP. METHODS: Overnight polysomnography was performed before and at least three months after surgery in 44 consecutive patients with symptomatic mild to moderate OSA (apnoea + hypopnoea index (AHI) >10/h). Pharyngeal dimensions were measured by videoendoscopy (n = 11) and disease-specific quality of life, sleepiness and snoring frequency (n = 16) before and after surgery were determined in subgroups of patients. LAUP was performed under local anaesthesia as a one stage resection of the uvula and soft palate by one of two experienced otolaryngologists. RESULTS: Twelve patients (27%) had a good response (AHI 50% of pre-LAUP value); and 13 (30%) patients were worse (AHI >100% of pre-LAUP value). The velopharyngeal cross sectional area and anteroposterior diameter increased following LAUP (p<0.05). Quality of life indices improved significantly in all domains and sleepiness decreased. The snoring index did not decrease significantly. No preoperative anthropometric or videoendoscopic measures were predictive of a good response to LAUP. Patients who were worse after LAUP had milder baseline apnoea severity than those in the other response groups. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment response to LAUP is variable and unpredictable, and only a few patients achieve a satisfactory response. There appears to be no relationship between subjective and objective measures of treatment efficacy. (+info)
Uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers--an early clinical sign of exanthem subitum due to human herpesvirus 6.
A provisional clinical diagnosis of exanthem subitum was made in six febrile infants seen in the Paediatric Unit of Assunta Hospital, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia with uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers prior to the eruption of maculopapular rash. On follow-up, all six infants developed maculopapular rash with the subsidence of fever at the end of the fourth febrile day. Human herpesvirus 6 was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the acute phase of the illness and HHV 6 specific genome was also detected in these cells by nested polymerase chain reaction. All the six infants showed seroconversion for both specific IgG and IgM to the isolated virus. This study suggests that the presence of uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers could be a useful early clinical sign of exanthem subitum due to human herpesvirus 6. (+info)
The association of uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers with exanthem subitum: a 10-year paediatric outpatient study.
A 10-year follow-up of children having exanthem subitum (ES) seen in an outpatient paediatric clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia shows that uvulo-palatoglossal junctional (UPJ) ulcer is a reliable early clinical sign of ES. During this period, 1,977 children (1,086 males, 891 females) had adequate follow-up from the age of 3 months to 24 months old. 897 children (478 males, 419 females) were noted to have UPJ ulcers. Of these 897 children, 855 (459 males, 396 females) presented with the classical clinical features of ES of maculopapular rash following 3 to 4 days of fever. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of UPJ ulcers in the clinical diagnosis of ES are 95.3% and 100% respectively. Among the 855 children with clinical features of ES, a provisional diagnosis of ES could be made in 781 children during the pre-eruptive phase by the presence of the UPJ ulcers. The other 74 children already had the rash at the time of consultation at the clinic. The peak age of occurrence of ES was 6 months old with 98.2% of the total cases of ES seen between the age of 4 and 12 months. There was no significant gender difference in the incidence of ES nor any seasonal variation. Mild to moderate diarrhoea was the other commonly associated clinical feature which usually presented from the third febrile day onwards. (+info)