(1/423) Regression of endometrial hyperplasia after treatment with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue triptorelin: a prospective study.
Endometrial hyperplasia is thought to be caused by the prolonged, unopposed oestrogenic stimulation of the endometrium. The regression of hyperplastic back to normal endometrium is the main purpose of any conservative treatment in order to prevent development of adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regression of hyperplastic to normal endometrium in patients with various forms of endometrial hyperplasia after treatment with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) triptorelin for 6 months. Fifty-six patients with endometrial hyperplasia were enrolled in this trial; 39 patients (group I) presented simple hyperplasia, 14 (group II) complex hyperplasia and three (group III) atypical complex hyperplasia. All patients were treated with triptorelin for 6 months. Bleeding control during treatment was excellent. A post-treatment curettage for estimation of endometrial histology was performed on 54 out of 56 patients 100.1 +/- 44.7 days after the last triptorelin dose, following the restoration of pituitary function. Regression of hyperplastic to normal endometrium was observed in 32 (86.5%) out of 37 patients in group I and in 12 (85.7%) out of 14 in group II. Persistence of simple hyperplasia was found in five (14.5%) out of 37 patients in group I. Persistence of complex hyperplasia was found in 1 (7.1%) out of 14 patients and progression to atypical complex hyperplasia in another one (7.1%) woman in group II. In some of these cases, the presence of risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ovulatory disturbances may contribute to the disease persistence despite therapy. On the other hand, in group III, none of the three patients had normal post-treatment endometrial histology. It seems, therefore, that in cases of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, the administration of the GnRHa triptorelin is associated with high regression rates to normal endometrium. Conversely, the presence of atypia seems to be a poor prognostic factor. Treatment tolerance and bleeding control during therapy is excellent. (+info)
(2/423) Uterine artery embolization--a successful treatment to control bleeding cervical pregnancy with a simultaneous intrauterine gestation.
A case of a woman suffering from a bleeding heterotopic cervical pregnancy is described. The concurrent cervical pregnancy and intrauterine gestation were diagnosed by ultrasound and bleeding was initially controlled with selective fluoroscopic uterine artery embolization. A selective fetal reduction was done with ultrasound-guided intracardiac potassium chloride. Uterine artery embolization has been used successfully to control haemorrhage in cervical pregnancies when the main goal was to allow preservation of the uterus, thus maintaining potential fertility. This is the first report of arterial embolization used to control bleeding for maintaining a concurrent intrauterine heterotopic pregnancy in an in-vitro fertilization patient. Unfortunately, subsequent conservative measures led to undesired outcome. This procedure initially controlled the bleeding without disrupting the intrauterine fetal cardiac activity. (+info)
(3/423) A multicentre efficacy and safety study of the single contraceptive implant Implanon. Implanon Study Group.
An open, multicentre study was performed to assess efficacy, safety and acceptability of the single-rod contraceptive implant Implanon. The study involved 635 young healthy women, who were sexually active and of childbearing potential. The women were followed up every 3 months over the entire study period. Originally the study was designed for 2 years, but was extended to 3 years in a group of 147 women from two centres. Altogether, 21 centres in nine different countries participated. The average age of the women was 29 years (range 18-42 years), of whom 83.5% had been pregnant in the past. No pregnancy occurred during treatment with Implanon, resulting in a Pearl Index of 0 (95% confidence interval: 0.0-0.2). In the first 2 years, 31% had discontinued the treatment. Of the 147 women in the study extension, nine discontinued (6%) treatment. Bleeding irregularities was the main reason for discontinuation during the first 2 years of use (17.2%) and adverse experiences in the third year (3.4%). Implant insertion and removal were fast and uncomplicated in the vast majority (97%) of cases. Return of fertility was prompt. In conclusion, Implanon has excellent contraceptive action during its lifetime of 3 years. The safety profile is acceptable and not essentially different from progestogens in general. (+info)
(4/423) Acceptability and patterns of uterine bleeding in sequential trimegestone-based hormone replacement therapy: a dose-ranging study.
Trimegestone is a norpregnane progestogen which is being developed in combination with oral oestradiol as postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In this multicentre dose-ranging study using randomized parallel groups, four doses of trimegestone were used to compare data on the patterns of uterine bleeding, the endometrial histology, and the control of menopausal symptoms in 203 women who completed treatment for 6 months. The treatment consisted of micronized oestradiol (2 mg/day) and one of four doses of trimegestone, which was administered sequentially for days 15-28 of the treatment cycle. Higher doses of trimegestone were associated with later onset of bleeding, which was lighter and of shorter duration than that observed with lower doses. The variability of the day of onset of bleeding in individual women was greater when bleeding occurred before the end of the progestogen phase (early bleeders) than when it occurred afterwards (late bleeders). All women enrolled in the study experienced good control of menopausal symptoms, with minimal progestogenic adverse effects, there being no statistically significant difference between the four dose groups. (+info)
(5/423) A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol.
This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) pills taken immediately after medical abortion on the duration of bleeding and complete abortion rate. Two hundred women in the first 49 days of pregnancy were given 200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 400 microg misoprostol vaginally 48 h later. One day later, they were randomized to receive either OC pills (30 microg of ethinyl oestradiol and 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel per tablet) or placebo for 21 days. The complete abortion rates were 98% in the OC group and 99% in the placebo group. The median duration of bleeding was similar: 17 (range: 5-57) days in the OC group and 16 (range: 6-55) days in the placebo group. In the OC group there was a small but significant fall in the haemoglobin concentration by 14 days (5.3 g/dl) after administration of mifepristone. The incidence of side-effects was similar in the two groups. We conclude that the use of OC pills does not decrease the duration of bleeding after medical abortion nor does it affect the abortion rate. (+info)
(6/423) Endometrial breakdown in women using Norplant is associated with migratory cells expressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B).
Norplant, subdermally implanted slow-release levonorgestrel, is an effective and widely used contraceptive agent but has a high rate of discontinuation due to unacceptable abnormal uterine bleeding. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in normal cycling endometrium and are postulated to be responsible for the tissue breakdown at menstruation. We have compared the immunolocalization of MMP-9 and migratory cells in endometrium from Indonesian women using Norplant with normal controls. Positive MMP-9 immunostaining was observed intracellularly within stromal and intravascular leukocytes and extracellularly in areas of tissue lysis adjacent to these migratory cells. The MMP-9 positive cells were identified as neutrophils, eosinophils, CD3+ T-cells and macrophages. Quantitative assessment revealed that the number of MMP-9 positive cells, neutrophils and eosinophils were significantly increased in those endometrial biopsies from Norplant users displaying a shedding morphology and in normal controls at menstruation. There was no correlation between the number of MMP-9 positive cells and the number of bleeding days reported. Endometrial immunostaining for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases was similar in Norplant users and normal controls. These results suggest that MMP-9, an enzyme capable of degrading basement membrane components, may be involved in endometrial breakdown in women using Norplant. (+info)
(7/423) Influence of parity on the obstetric performance of mothers aged 40 years and above.
We reviewed the delivery records of 205 mothers aged 40 years and above who delivered from 1st January 1994 to 31st December 1996 to examine the influence of parity on their obstetric performance. There were 51 (24.9%) primiparous mothers. The incidences of antenatal complications (antepartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, glucose intolerance, prematurity), labour performance (type of labour, mode of delivery) and neonatal outcome (birth weight, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admission, perinatal mortality) were compared between the 51 (24.9%) primiparous and the 154 (75.1%) multiparous mothers. Higher incidences of antepartum haemorrhage (17.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.0188), hypertensive disorder (17.6 versus 5.2%, P = 0.015), labour induction (33.3 versus 14.3%, P = 0.004) and Caesarean section delivery (58.8 versus 20.8%, P < 0.0001) were found among the primiparous mothers than the multiparous group. Neonatal outcome, however, was similar in both groups. We conclude that the primiparous mothers aged 40 years and above had more complicated antenatal and labour courses than multiparous mothers. On the other hand, the neonatal outcomes of two groups were comparable. (+info)
(8/423) Office mini-hysteroscopy.
The technique of diagnostic hysteroscopy has not yet been accepted generally as an ambulatory, well-tolerated office procedure. Especially in the infertile patient the standard hysteroscopic procedure is poorly tolerated in an office environment. Our prospective registration of 530 diagnostic office mini-hysteroscopies in infertile patients demonstrates that using an atraumatic insertion technique, watery distention medium and the new generation of mini-hysteroscopic endoscopes, hysteroscopy can be performed in an office set-up without any form of anaesthesia and with a high patient compliance. The significant number of abnormal findings (28.5%), the absence of complications and the low failure rate (2.3%) indicate that diagnostic office mini-hysteroscopy should be a first-line diagnostic procedure. Those results are compared with the registration of 4204 consecutive conventional diagnostic hysteroscopies in a routine gynaecological population performed between 1982 and 1989. We conclude that the mini-hysteroscopic system offers a simple, safe and efficient diagnostic method in the office for the investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding, to evaluate the cervix and uterine cavity in the infertile patient, for screening of endometrial changes in patients under hormone replacement therapy or anti-oestrogens as (adjuvant) treatment and, lastly, it may be very helpful for the interpretation of uncertain findings in other diagnostic techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, blind biopsy or hysterosalpingography. (+info)