Crc is involved in catabolite repression control of the bkd operons of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Crc (catabolite repression control) protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown to be involved in carbon regulation of several pathways. In this study, the role of Crc in catabolite repression control has been studied in Pseudomonas putida. The bkd operons of P. putida and P. aeruginosa encode the inducible multienzyme complex branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, which is regulated in both species by catabolite repression. We report here that this effect is mediated in both species by Crc. A 13-kb cloned DNA fragment containing the P. putida crc gene region was sequenced. Crc regulates the expression of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and amidase in both species but not urocanase, although the carbon sources responsible for catabolite repression in the two species differ. Transposon mutants affected in their expression of BkdR, the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, were isolated and identified as crc and vacB (rnr) mutants. These mutants suggested that catabolite repression in pseudomonads might, in part, involve control of BkdR levels. (+info)
Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the cold-inducible hutU gene from the antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.
A promoter-fusion study with a Tn 5-based promoter probe vector had earlier found that the hutU gene which encodes the enzyme urocanase for the histidine utilization pathway is upregulated at a lower temperature (4 degrees C) in the Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. To examine the characteristics of the urocanase gene and its promoter elements from the psychrotroph, the complete hutU and its upstream region from P. syringae were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed in the present study. Northern blot and primer extension analyses suggested that the hutU gene is inducible upon a downshift of temperature (22 to 4 degrees C) and that there is more than one transcription initiation site. One of the initiation sites was specific to the cells grown at 4 degrees C, which was different from the common initiation sites observed at both 4 and 22 degrees C. Although no typical promoter consensus sequences were observed in the flanking region of the transcription initiation sites, there was a characteristic CAAAA sequence at the -10 position of the promoters. Additionally, the location of the transcription and translation initiation sites suggested that the hutU mRNA contains a long 5'-untranslated region, a characteristic feature of many cold-inducible genes of mesophilic bacteria. A comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of urocanase from various bacteria, including the mesophilic and psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp., suggests that there is a high degree of similarity between the enzymes. The enzyme sequence contains a signature motif (GXGX(2)GX(10)G) of the Rossmann fold for dinucleotide (NAD(+)) binding and two conserved cysteine residues in and around the active site. The psychrotrophic enzyme, however, has an extended N-terminal end. (+info)
Isolation, sequencing and expression in E. coli of the urocanase gene from white clover (Trifolium repens).
The urocanase gene was detected in a clone obtained from a genomic library of white clover. The entire gene has been sequenced and expressed in the pT7-7/E. coli BL 21 (DE 3) system. The deduced sequence of the plant urocanase is 72% homologous with that of the well-characterized urocanase from Pseudomonas putida. The purification procedure, as well as kinetic and electrophoretic behaviour, of the new enzyme are described. (+info)
Cloning and sequencing the urocanase gene (hutU) from Pseudomonas putida.
A clone harbouring the entire urocanase gene (hutU) was obtained from a genomic library of Pseudomonas putida using oligonucleotide probes synthesised on the basis of known flanking sequences. One subunit of urocanase consists of 556 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 60,771 Da. (+info)
Fasting-induced changes in ECL cell gene expression.
Gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells release histamine in response to food because of elevation of gastrin and neural release of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). Acid secretion is at a basal level in the absence of food but is rapidly stimulated with feeding. Rats fasted for 24 h showed a significant decrease of mucosal histamine despite steady-state expression of the histamine-synthesizing enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Comparative transcriptomal analysis using gene expression oligonucleotide microarrays of 95% pure ECL cells from fed and 24-h fasted rats, thereby eliminating mRNA contamination from other gastric mucosal cell types, identified significantly increased gene expression of the enzymes histidase and urocanase catabolizing the HDC substrate L-histidine but significantly decreased expression of the cellular L-histidine uptake transporter SN2 and of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2) responsible for histamine uptake into secretory vesicles. This was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of gastric fundic mucosal samples from fed and 24-h fasted rats. The decrease of VMAT-2 gene expression was also shown by a decrease in VMAT-2 protein content in protein extracts from fed and 24-h fasted rats compared with equal amounts of HDC protein and Na-K-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit protein content. These results indicate that rat gastric ECL cells regulate their histamine content during 24-h fasting not by a change in HDC gene or protein expression but by regulation of substrate concentration for HDC and a decreased histamine secretory pool. (+info)
Mechanism of action of urocanase. Specific 13C-labelling of the prosthetic NAD+ and revision of the structure of its adduct with imidazolylpropionate.
1. [4-13C]Nicotinate was synthesised and used to support the growth of a nicotinate auxotrophic mutant of Pseudomonas putida. 13C-NMR spectroscopy of the isolated urocanase confirmed the efficient incorporation of 13C into C4 of the nicotinamide ring of the tightly bound NAD+ cofactor. 2. beta-[( 2'-13C]Imidazol-4-yl)propionate was synthesised according to known procedures and used for inhibition of the 13C-labelled urocanase. An increase in the absorbance at 330 nm indicated adduct formation between enzyme-bound NAD+ and inhibitor. The adduct was stabilised by oxidation with phenazine methosulfate and isolated using a slight modification of the procedure of Matherly et al. [Matherly, L. H., DeBrosse, C. W. & Phillips, A. T. (1982) Biochemistry 21, 2789-2794]. 3. The 13C-NMR spectrum of the doubly labelled adduct, [4-13C]NAD-[2'-13C]imidazolylpropionate, showed no one-bond 13C-13C coupling between labelled sites. The 1H-NMR spectrum of this adduct in 2H2O showed only one imidazole signal, which appeared as a doublet (1JC-H = 212 Hz), confirming the presence of a proton at the labelled C2'. The lack of a C5' signal and further NMR data provide evidence for a C-C bond between C4 of the nicotinamide and C5' of the imidazole ring. 4. The revised structure for the enzymatically formed addition complex suggests a novel mechanism for the urocanase reaction which is not only chemically plausible but also explains the previously observed urocanase-catalysed exchange of the C5 proton of urocanate and of beta-(imidazol-4-yl)propionate. (+info)
Isolation of super-repressor mutants in the histidine utilization system of Salmonella typhimurium.
Two super-repressor mutations in the histidine utilization (hut) operons of Salmonella typhimurium are described. Cells bearing either of these mutations have levels of hut enzymes that do not increase above the uninduced levels when growth is in the presence of either histidine or the gratuitous inducer imidazole propionate. Both mutations lie in the region of the gene for the hut repressor, hutC, and reverse mutations of both are to the constitutive (repressor-negative) rather than to the inducible (wild type) phenotype. In hybrid merodiploid strains the super-repressor mutations are dominant over either wild-type (hutC+) or repressor-negative (hutC-) alleles. Whereas both super-repressor mutations cause the uninducible synthesis of hut enzymes, the degree of repression is different. One mutation causes repression of enzyme synthesis in one of the two hut operons to a level below the basal, uninduced level of wild-type cells. The other mutation causes repression to a lesser degree than in wild-type cells, so that the hut enzymes are present at a level above the normal basal level; this partially constitutive synthesis is greater for the enzymes of one of the hut operons than for the enzymes of the other. Thus, both mutations apparently result in repressors with altered operator-binding properties, in addition to altered inducer-binding properties. (+info)