Unilateral iliac vein occlusion, caused by bladder enlargement, simulating deep venous thrombosis.
A variety of conditions cause unilateral leg swelling and thus mimic deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A heretofore-underappreciated condition that may lead to unilateral iliac vein compression, simulating DVT, is massive enlargement of the bladder caused by urinary retention. A case that demonstrates this condition is described. Although this disorder has been reported only three times before, its occurrence should be recognized by clinicians in light of the overall aging of our society. In addition, this case highlights the need for careful and thorough evaluation of patients who have unilateral lower-extremity edema. (+info)
Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.
A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine. (+info)
An unusual case of urinary retention due to imperforate hymen.
A 15 year old girl presented to the accident and emergency (A&E) department with a 24 hour history of lower abdominal pain, and was found to have acute urinary retention. She was discovered to have an imperforate hymen with associated haematocolpos and haematometrium. This is rare and is hence a very unusual presentation to the A&E department. Patients presenting with retention of urine should be carefully assessed for the cause. (+info)
Management of bladder function after outpatient surgery.
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to test a treatment algorithm for management of bladder function after outpatient general or local anesthesia. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-four outpatients, stratified into risk categories for urinary retention, were studied. Patients in category 1 were low-risk patients (n = 227) having non-pelvic surgery and randomly assigned to receive 10 ml/kg or 2 ml/kg of intravenous fluid intraoperatively. They were discharged when otherwise ready, without being required to void. Patients in category 2 (n = 40), also presumed to be low risk, had gynecologic surgery. High-risk patients included 31 patients having hernia or anal surgery (category 3), and 31 patients with a history of retention (category 4). Bladder volumes were monitored by ultrasound in those in categories 2-4, and patients were required to void (or be catheterized) before discharge. The incidence of retention and urinary tract symptoms after surgery were determined for all categories. RESULT: Urinary retention affected 0.5% of category 1 patients and none of category 2 patients. Median time to void after discharge was 75 min (interquartile range 120) in category 1 patients (n = 27) discharged without voiding. Fluids administered did not alter incidence of retention or time to void. Retention occurred in 5% of high-risk patients before discharge and recurred in 25% after discharge. CONCLUSION: In reliable patients at low risk for retention, voiding before discharge appears unnecessary. In high-risk patients, continued observation until the bladder is emptied is indicated to avoid prolonged overdistention of the bladder. (+info)
Primary low-grade lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the urinary bladder: a case report with special reference to the use of ancillary diagnostic studies.
We report a case of primary low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type of the urinary bladder. The patient, a 77-year-old woman, presented with a sense of urinary retention. An intravenous pyelogram and cystoscopy revealed a wide-based submucosal mass measuring 3 cm in the left wall of the urinary bladder. Histological findings of the tissue obtained by transurethral resection (TUR) showed a dense, monomorphic atypical lymphoid (centrocyte-like) infiltrate with reactive lymph follicles in the subepithelial tissue. Monocytoid and plasmacytoid features were readily evident in a population of these cells. Lymphoepithelial lesions involving the urothelium were also noticed in some areas. These features were strongly suggestive of primary low-grade lymphoma of the MALT type. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical and flow cytometric studies, both of which showed a clear immunoglobulin restriction to lambda light chain and also by polymerase chain reaction-based assay using a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded TUR tissue sample, which showed a clonal Ig heavy-chain gene rearrangement. Clinical staging procedures revealed that the tumor was localized in the urinary bladder. The patient has not received chemotherapy and is alive and well with no evidence of recurrence, 3 years after TUR. This case demonstrates that these ancillary tests are worth performing for confirmation of B-cell clonality in TUR tissue samples showing dense B-lymphocytic infiltration. (+info)
Elimination of biliary stones through the urinary tract: a complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
The introduction and popularization of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been accompanied with a considerable increase in perforation of gallbladder during this procedure (10% - 32%), with the occurrence of intraperitoneal bile spillage and the consequent increase in the incidence of lost gallstones (0.2% - 20%). Recently the complications associated with these stones have been documented in the literature. We report a rare complication occurring in an 81-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed cutaneous fistula to the umbilicus and elimination of biliary stones through the urinary tract. During the cholecystectomy, the gall bladder was perforated, and bile and gallstones were spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Two months after the initial procedure there was exteriorization of fistula through the umbilicus, with intermittent elimination of biliary stones. After eleven months, acute urinary retention occurred due to biliary stones in the bladder, which were removed by cystoscopy. We conclude that efforts should be concentrated on avoiding the spillage of stones during the surgery, and that no rules exist for indicating a laparotomy simply to retrieve these lost gallstones. (+info)
Reduction in renal haemodynamics by exaggerated vesicovascular reflex in rats with acute urinary retention.
1. We examined the possibility that a vesicovascular reflex is exaggerated by acute urinary retention, and that the increase in renal vascular resistance caused by this reflex may lead to renal dysfunction. We evaluated the vesicovascular responses to normal micturition (NM, transcystometric condition) and acute urinary retention (isovolumetric condition mimicking complete bladder-outlet obstruction (CBOO) and partial urethral ligation mimicking partial bladder-outlet obstruction (PBOO)) in anaesthetized female Wistar rats. 2. Acute urinary retention due to CBOO or PBOO provoked a prolonged or increased intravesical pressure, an enhancement in both bladder pelvic afferent and bladder pelvic efferent nervous activity, and an elevation in mean arterial blood pressure. 3. Single-unit analysis showed that these vesicovascular reflexes were triggered by activation of low-threshold and high-threshold bladder mechanoreceptors, but not by renal uretropelvic mechanoreceptors. 4. Bladder contraction in CBOO and PBOO conditions and graded increases in bladder volume significantly reduced renal blood flow and cortical microvascular blood flow. The acute urinary retention-induced renal vasoconstriction was mediated by the renal nerve. Renal denervation, but not bilateral ureteral resection, abolished the renal vasoconstriction associated with the vesicovascular reflexes. 5. These findings indicate that exaggerated activation of bladder afferents exerts a positive feedback effect to increase sympathetic outflow to the kidney further, thereby contributing to significant renal vasoconstriction via a renal nerve-dependent mechanism. (+info)
A 23-year review of the management of acute retention of urine: progressing or regressing?
A retrospective review of all patients in Oxford under the care of one consultant urologist (GJF) who presented on alternate years over a 23-year period with acute retention of urine was undertaken. Data were collected on the: (i) number of patients discharged from hospital with an in-dwelling catheter; (ii) duration of catheter drainage prior to surgery; and (iii) duration of postoperative stay. In all, 244 patients underwent prostatectomy. Over the 23-year period, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients discharged prior to surgery (P < 0.001) as well as their median duration of catheterisation (P < 0.001): more than 50% were catheterised for more than 3 months in 1997. Conversely, post-operative hospital stay has decreased. Prolonged catheter drainage carries considerable morbidity, with 72% experiencing some complication. Most patients feel they lose dignity, 69% consider it uncomfortable and more than 50% complain of burning sensations, bladder spasms and a persistent desire to micturate. We recommend that patients should not be placed on routine waiting lists where they are liable to remain for an unacceptably long time. Targets should be set to admit them within a set period and theatre lists made available. We feel that six weeks is a realistic target. (+info)