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(1/973) Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

(2/973) Relaxation of endothelin-1-induced pulmonary arterial constriction by niflumic acid and NPPB: mechanism(s) independent of chloride channel block.

We investigated the effects of the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced constriction of rat small pulmonary arteries (diameter 100-400 microm) in vitro, following endothelium removal. ET-1 (30 nM) induced a sustained constriction of rat pulmonary arteries in physiological salt solution. Arteries preconstricted with ET-1 were relaxed by niflumic acid (IC50: 35.8 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 21.1 microM) in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, at concentrations known to block Ca++-activated Cl- channels, DIDS (+info)

(3/973) Interplay between the NO pathway and elevated [Ca2+]i enhances ciliary activity in rabbit trachea.

1. Average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were simultaneously measured in rabbit airway ciliated cells in order to elucidate the molecular events that lead to ciliary activation by purinergic stimulation. 2. Extracellular ATP and extracellular UTP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF. These effects were practically abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122) or by suramin. 3. The effects of extracellular ATP were not altered: when protein kinase C (PKC) was inhibited by either GF 109203X or chelerythrine chloride, or when protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by RP-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS). 4. Activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (TPA) had little effect on CBF or on [Ca2+]i, while activation of PKA by forskolin or by dibutyryl-cAMP led to a small rise in CBF without affecting [Ca2+]i. 5. Direct activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with dibutyryl-cGMP had a negligible effect on CBF when [Ca2+]i was at basal level. However, dibutyryl-cGMP strongly elevated CBF when [Ca2+]i was elevated either by extracellular ATP or by ionomycin. 6. The findings suggest that the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by extracellular ATP activates the NO pathway, thus leading to PKG activation. In the continuous presence of elevated [Ca2+]i the stimulated PKG then induces a robust enhancement in CBF. In parallel, activated PKG plays a central role in Ca2+ influx via a still unidentified mechanism, and thus, through positive feedback, maintains CBF close to its maximal level in the continuous presence of ATP.  (+info)

(4/973) Chemotactic, mitogenic, and angiogenic actions of UTP on vascular endothelial cells.

Endothelial cells express receptors for ATP and UTP, and both UTP and ATP elicit endothelial release of vasoactive compounds such as prostacyclin and nitric oxide; however, the distinction between purine and pyrimidine nucleotide signaling is not known. We hypothesized that UTP plays a more important role in endothelial mitogenesis and chemotaxis than does ATP and that UTP is angiogenic. In cultured endothelial cells from guinea pig cardiac vasculature (CEC), both UTP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significant mitogenic and chemotactic factors; in contrast, ATP demonstrated no significant chemotaxis in CEC. In chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), UTP and VEGF treatments produced statistically significant increases in CAM vascularity compared with controls. These findings are the first evidence of chemotactic or angiogenic effects of pyrimidines; they suggest a role for pyrimidine nucleotides that is distinct from those assumed by purine nucleotides and provide for the possibility that UTP serves as an extracellular signal for processes such as endothelial repair and angiogenesis.  (+info)

(5/973) Inhibition of phospholipase A2-mediated arachidonic acid release by cyclic AMP defines a negative feedback loop for P2Y receptor activation in Madin-Darby canine kidney D1 cells.

In Madin-Darby canine kidney D1 cells extracellular nucleotides activate P2Y receptors that couple to several signal transduction pathways, including stimulation of multiple phospholipases and adenylyl cyclase. For one class of P2Y receptors, P2Y2 receptors, this stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and increase in cAMP occurs via the conversion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-generated arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins (e.g. PGE2). These prostaglandins then stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity, presumably via activation of prostanoid receptors. In the current study we show that agents that increase cellular cAMP levels (including PGE2, forskolin, and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol) can inhibit P2Y receptor-promoted AA release. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 blocks this effect, suggesting that this feedback inhibition occurs via activation of PKA. Studies with PGE2 indicate that inhibition of AA release is attributable to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and in turn of P2Y receptor stimulated PLA2 activity. Although cAMP/PKA-mediated inhibition occurs for P2Y receptor-promoted AA release, we did not find such inhibition for epinephrine (alpha1-adrenergic) or bradykinin-mediated AA release. Taken together, these results indicate that negative feedback regulation via cAMP/PKA-mediated inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase occurs for some, but not all, classes of receptors that promote PLA2 activation and AA release. We speculate that receptor-selective feedback inhibition occurs because PLA2 activation by different receptors in Madin-Darby canine kidney D1 cells involves the utilization of different signaling components that are differentially sensitive to increases in cAMP or, alternatively, because of compartmentation of signaling components.  (+info)

(6/973) Dual coupling of heterologously-expressed rat P2Y6 nucleotide receptors to N-type Ca2+ and M-type K+ currents in rat sympathetic neurones.

1. The P2Y6 receptor is a uridine nucleotide-specific G protein-linked receptor previously reported to stimulate the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway. We have investigated its effect in neurones, by micro-injecting its cRNA into dissociated rat sympathetic neurones and recording responses of N-type Ca2+ (I(Ca(N))) and M-type K+ (I(K(M))) currents. 2. In P2Y6 cRNA-injected neurones, UDP or UTP produced a voltage-dependent inhibition of I(Ca(N)) by approximately 53% in whole-cell (disrupted-patch) mode and by 73% in perforated-patch mode; no inhibition occurred in control cells. Mean IC50 values (whole-cell) were: UDP, 5.9+/-0.3 nM; UTP, 20+/-1 nM. ATP and ADP (1 microM) had no significant effect. Pertussis toxin (PTX) substantially (approximately 60%) reduced UTP-mediated inhibition in disrupted patch mode but not in perforated-patch mode. 3. Uridine nucleotides also inhibited I(K(M)) in P2Y6 cRNA-injected cells (by up to 71% at 10 microM UTP; perforated-patch). Mean IC50 values were: UDP, 30+/-3 nM; UTP, 115+/-12 nM. ATP (10 microM) again had no effect. No significant inhibition occurred in control cells. Inhibition was PTX-resistant. 4. Thus, the P2Y6 receptor, like the P2Y2 subtype studied in this system, couples to both of these two neuronal ion channels through at least two different G proteins. However, the P2Y6 receptor displays a much higher sensitivity to its agonists than the P2Y2 receptor in this expression system and higher than previously reported using other expression methods. The very high sensitivity to both UDP and UTP suggests that it might be preferentially activated by any locally released uridine nucleotides.  (+info)

(7/973) Desensitization of P2Y2 receptor-activated transepithelial anion secretion.

Desensitization of P2Y2 receptor-activated anion secretion may limit the usefulness of extracellular nucleotides in secretagogue therapy of epithelial diseases, e.g., cystic fibrosis (CF). To investigate the desensitization process for endogenous P2Y2 receptors, freshly excised or cultured murine gallbladder epithelia (MGEP) were mounted in Ussing chambers to measure short-circuit current (Isc), an index of electrogenic anion secretion. Luminal treatment with nucleotide receptor agonists increased the Isc with a potency profile of ATP = UTP > 2-methylthioATP >> alpha,beta-methylene-ATP. RT-PCR revealed the expression of P2Y2 receptor mRNA in the MGEP cells. The desensitization of anion secretion required a 10-min preincubation with the P2Y2 receptor agonist UTP and increased in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M). Approximately 40% of the anion secretory response was unaffected by maximal desensitizing concentrations of UTP. Recovery from UTP-induced desensitization was rapid (<10 min) at preincubation concentrations less than the EC50 (1.9 x 10(-6) M) but required progressively longer time periods at greater concentrations. UTP-induced total inositol phosphate production and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization desensitized with a concentration dependence similar to that of anion secretion. In contrast, maximal anion secretion induced by Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin was unaffected by preincubation with a desensitizing concentration of UTP. It was concluded that 1) desensitization of transepithelial anion secretion stimulated by the P2Y2 receptor agonist UTP is time and concentration dependent; 2) recovery from desensitization is prolonged (>90 min) at UTP concentrations >10(-5) M; and 3) UTP-induced desensitization occurs before the operation of the anion secretory mechanism.  (+info)

(8/973) UTP inhibits Na+ absorption in wild-type and DeltaF508 CFTR-expressing human bronchial epithelia.

Ca2+-mediated agonists, including UTP, are being developed for therapeutic use in cystic fibrosis (CF) based on their ability to modulate alternative Cl- conductances. As CF is also characterized by hyperabsorption of Na+, we determined the effect of mucosal UTP on transepithelial Na+ transport in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelia (HBE). In symmetrical NaCl, UTP induced an initial increase in short-circuit current (Isc) followed by a sustained inhibition. To differentiate between effects on Na+ absorption and Cl- secretion, Isc was measured in the absence of mucosal and serosal Cl- (INa). Again, mucosal UTP induced an initial increase and then a sustained decrease that reduced amiloride-sensitive INa by 73%. The Ca2+-dependent agonists histamine, bradykinin, serosal UTP, and thapsigargin similarly induced sustained inhibition (62-84%) of INa. Mucosal UTP induced similar sustained inhibition (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 296 nM) of INa in primary cultures of human CF airway homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation. BAPTA-AM blunted UTP-dependent inhibition of INa, but inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and phospholipase A2 had no effect. Indeed, direct activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to inhibit Na+ absorption. Apyrase, a tri- and diphosphatase, did not reverse inhibitory effects of UTP on INa, suggesting a long-term inhibitory effect of UTP that is independent of receptor occupancy. After establishment of a mucosa-to-serosa K+ concentration gradient and permeabilization of the mucosal membrane with nystatin, mucosal UTP induced an initial increase in K+ current followed by a sustained inhibition. We conclude that increasing cellular Ca2+ induces a long-term inhibition of transepithelial Na+ transport across normal and CF HBE at least partly due to downregulation of a basolateral membrane K+ conductance. Thus UTP may have a dual therapeutic effect in CF airway: 1) stimulation of a Cl- secretory response and 2) inhibition of Na+ transport.  (+info)