Increased frequency of detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium in AIDS patients without urethral symptoms.
The roles of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in nongonococcal urethritis are not yet well established. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these microorganisms in the urethral tracts of 187 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected male patients with no clinical signs of urethritis. The results indicate that the prevalence of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum was higher in AIDS patients than in asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected patients and in healthy individuals. The high rate of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas detected in AIDS patients, in the absence of urethritis, argues against major roles in causing disease at the urethral mucosal level for these microorganisms. (+info)
Evaluation of the Etest for susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.
The Etest was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolates and the results were compared with those obtained with the broth microdilution method. For 50 clinical isolates of M. hominis the MICs of doxycycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin agreed within +/- one dilution and +/- two dilutions in 82-98% and 98-100% of cases, respectively. The MICs of erythromycin, azithromycin, doxycycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were evaluated for 50 clinical isolates of U. urealyticum. The corresponding levels of agreement were 70-98% and 94-100%, respectively. Reference isolates M. hominis PG-21 and U. urealyticum T-960 were also used. The Etest seems to be an alternative method for determination of MICs of antibiotics with M. hominis and U. urealyticum. (+info)
In-vitro activity of grepafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, against mycoplasmas.
The in-vitro activity of grepafloxacin, a new oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was compared with those of three other fluoroquinolones and two unrelated antimicrobials, doxycycline and erythromycin, against various Mycoplasma spp. For 65 mycoplasma and 42 ureaplasma strains, grepafloxacin (MIC range 0.03-2 mg/L) was some two to 16 times more active than ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, showing similar activity to that of sparfloxacin. MBCs of grepafloxacin increased two- to 16-fold when compared with MICs and were comparable to those of sparfloxacin, and lower than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. (+info)
Comparative in-vitro activity of levofloxacin, other fluoroquinolones, doxycycline and erythromycin against Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis.
The susceptibility of 56 Ureaplasma urealyticum and 57 Mycoplasma hominis strains to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, doxycycline and erythromycin was determined by an agar dilution method. The reference strain used was M. hominis PG 21. Agar plates containing serial dilutions of antibiotics (range 0.03-16 mg/L), and control plates (without antibiotics) were inoculated with bacteria suspended in modified Shepard's broth using a multipoint inoculator. Levofloxacin showed greater activity against all U. urealyticum and M. hominis strains compared with all other antibiotics tested. The MIC90 values for U. urealyticum were as follows: levofloxacin, 1 mg/L; ofloxacin, 2 mg/L; ciprofloxacin, 4 mg/L; fleroxacin, 4 mg/L; doxycycline, 1 mg/L; erythromycin, 8 mg/L. The MIC90s for M. hominis were: levofloxacin, 1 mg/L; ofloxacin, 2 mg/L; ciprofloxacin, 4 mg/L; fleroxacin, 4 mg/L; doxycycline, 4 mg/L; erythromycin, > or = 16 mg/L. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that levofloxacin may be useful in the treatment of mycoplasma genital infections. (+info)
Relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum vaginal colonization and polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene.
The relationship between polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene and microbial vaginal colonization was examined in 88 asymptomatic women of reproductive age. Alleles of the intron 2 region of the IL-1ra gene were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was also used to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Candida albicans; bacterial vaginosis (BV) was identified by clinical criteria. Among the 31 women with vaginal U. urealyticum, only 3 (9.7%) were homozygous for allele 2 of the IL-1ra gene; 21 (36.8%) of the 57 women who were negative for this organism were positive for allele 2 (P=.006). Only 7 women were positive for M. hominis; none were allele 2 homozygotes as opposed to 24 (29.6%) of the 81 women negative for M. hominis. There was no relation between C. albicans or BV and any IL-1ra allele. Reduced susceptibility to vaginal colonization with mycoplasmas may be associated with homozygosity of the 2 allele of the IL-1ra gene. (+info)
Role of ureaplasma urealyticum in lung disease of prematurity.
AIM: To examine the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum colonisation or infection in neonatal lung disease. METHODS: Endotracheal aspirates from ventilated infants less than 28 weeks of gestation were cultured for U urealyticum and outcomes compared in infants with positive and negative cultures. RESULTS: U urealyticum was isolated from aspirates of 39 of 143 (27%) infants. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) occurred significantly less often in colonised, than in non-colonised infants (p=0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that in singleton infants, ureaplasma colonisation was the only independent (negative) predictor of RDS (OR 0.36; p=0. 02). Both gestational age (OR 0.46; p=0.006) and isolation of U urealyticum (OR 3.0; p=0.05) were independent predictors of chronic lung disease (CLD), as defined by requirement for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks of gestational age. Multiple gestation was also a major independent predictor of RDS and CLD. CONCLUSIONS: Colonisation or infection with ureaplasma apparently protects premature infants against the development of RDS (suggesting intrauterine infection). However, in singleton infants, it predisposes to development of CLD, independently of gestational age. Treatment of affected infants after birth is unlikely to significantly improve the outcome and methods are required to identify and treat the women with intrauterine ureaplasmal infection, before preterm delivery occurs. (+info)
Phylogenetic analysis of Ureaplasma urealyticum--support for the establishment of a new species, Ureaplasma parvum.
In this study, the phylogenetic relationships between the two biovars and 14 serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum were studied using the sequences of four different genes or genetic regions, namely: 16S rRNA genes; 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions; urease gene subunits ureA, ureB, partial ureC and adjoining regions upstream of ureA, ureA-ureB spacer and ureB-ureC spacer; the 5'-ends of the multiple-banded antigen (MBA) genes. U. urealyticum genotypes, based on all four genomic sequences, could be clearly separated into two clusters corresponding with currently recognized biovars 1 and 2. Sequences were generally conserved within each biovar. However, there was heterogeneity within the 5'-end regions of the MBA genes of the four serovars of biovar 1; the sequence of serovar 3 was identical with the previously published sequence and differed by only three bases from that of serovar 14; but there were significant differences between the sequences of serovars 3 and 14 and those of serovars 1 and 6. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, support is given to previous recommendations that the two biovars of U. urealyticum be classified as distinct species, namely U. parvum and U. urealyticum for biovars 1 and 2, respectively. In the future, the relationship between the new species and clinical manifestations of ureaplasma infections should be studied. (+info)
Differentiation of two biovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum based on the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region.
The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of 14 strains representing the 14 serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum were amplified by PCR and sequenced for genetic differentiation between the two biovars Parvo and T960. Although the spacer region of the Parvo and T960 biovars comprised 302 nucleotides and lacked spacer tRNA genes, 15 nucleotides were different between the two biovars. The four nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 in the Parvo biovar were found to be identical. Similarly, the 10 nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of serovars 2, 4, 5, and 7 to 13 in the T960 biovar were found to be identical. The nucleotide sequence of the T960 biovar contains multiple restriction sites for restriction endonuclease SspI, which allows differentiation of the T960 biovar from the Parvo biovar. (+info)