Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA.
The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone. (+info)
The uptake and metabolism of uridine by the slime mould Physarum polycephalum.
1. Uridine is taken up by microplasmodia of Physarum polycephalum via a saturatable transport system with an apparent Km of 29 muM. An intracellular concentration significantly higher than that in the growth medium is attained, suggesting that the uptake is an active process. Both deoxyribonucleosides and ribonucleosides are competitive inhibitors of the uptake of uridine. 2. In contrast, the rate of entry of uridine into surface plasmodia is a linear function of the concentration of the nucleoside in the growth medium, and the uptake is not inhibited by other nucleosides. 3. As well as serving as a source of pyrimidine nucleotides for the synthesis of nucleic acids, uridine is also catabolised by P. polycephalum. Uracil accumulates in the growth medium and there is also significant conversion of C-2 of the pyrimidine ring to CO2. The proportion of uridine subject to catabolism in surface plasmodia is less than that observed for microplasmodia. (+info)
Single-nucleotide patch base excision repair of uracil in DNA by mitochondrial protein extracts.
Mammalian mitochondria contain several 16.5 kb circular DNAs (mtDNA) encoding electron transport chain proteins. Reactive oxygen species formed as byproducts from oxidative phosphorylation in these organelles can cause oxidative deamination of cytosine and lead to uracil in mtDNA. Upon mtDNA replication, these lesions, if unrepaired, can lead to mutations. Until recently, it was thought that there was no DNA repair in mitochondria, but lately there is evidence that some lesions are efficiently repaired in these organelles. In the study of nuclear DNA repair, the in vitro repair measurements in cell extracts have provided major insights into the mechanisms. The use of whole-cell extract based DNA repair methods has revealed that mammalian nuclear base excision repair (BER) diverges into two pathways: the single-nucleotide replacement and long patch repair mechanisms. Similar in vitro methods have not been available for the study of mitochondrial BER. We have established an in vitro DNA repair system supported by rat liver mitochondrial protein extract and DNA substrates containing a single uracil opposite to a guanine. Using this approach, we examined the repair pathways and the identity of the DNA polymerase involved in mitochondrial BER (mtBER). Employing restriction analysis of in vitro repaired DNA to map the repair patch size, we demonstrate that only one nucleotide is incorporated during the repair process. Thus, in contrast to BER in the nucleus, mtBER of uracil in DNA is solely accomplished by single-nucleotide replacement. (+info)
Pyrimidine nucleotide-evoked inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in equine epithelial cells.
Uridine triphosphate (UTP) evoked inhibition of adrenaline-evoked cAMP accumulation in cultured equine epithelial cells (EC50, 1.8 +/- 0.2 microM) and this effect was mimicked by 5-Br-UTP (EC50, 6.6 +/- 1.8 microM) and uridine diphosphate (UDP; EC50, 96 +/- 26 microM). This inhibitory action of UTP was abolished by pre-treating cells with pertussis toxin (10 ng ml-1, 24 h). UTP (EC50, 2.3 +/- 0.3 microM) and 5-Br-UTP (EC50, 29.4 +/- 9.4 microM) also increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) whilst UDP did not; the two effects are thus differentially sensitive to these pyrimidine nucleotides. ATP evoked cAMP accumulation in control cells and this response was unaffected by pertussis toxin. There is, therefore, no indication that ATP activates the pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibitory pathway. The UTP-evoked inhibition of cAMP accumulation was abolished by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, 5 mM) and so the negative control over cAMP levels appears to be mediated by receptors that are selectively activated by pyrimidine nucleotides and permit control over phosphodiesterase activity. (+info)
The preparation and properties of 4-thiouridine containing 2'-5' and 3'-5' dinucleoside monophosphates.
2'-5' and 3'-5' dinucleoside monophosphates containing 4-thiouridine were prepared by the thiolation of the cytosine containing compounds and purified by chromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex column. The chromatographic and optical properties of the isomers are compared. (+info)
A modified procedure for the preparation of di- and triribonucleotides from pancreatic ribonuclease digest of RNA.
A novel procedure for the separation of oligonucleotides from pancreatic RNase-digest of RNA is described. The method involves a group-separation of uracil-containing and of cytosine-containing nucleotides on Dowex 50W. The obtained groups are further separated on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 by a linear gradient of NH4HCO3. (+info)
X-ray crystallographic visualization of drug-nucleic acid intercalative binding: structure of an ethidium-dinucleoside monophosphate crystalline complex, Ethidium: 5-iodouridylyl (3'-5') adenosine.
We have cocrystallized the drug ethidium bromide with the dinucleoside monophosphate 5-iodouridylyl(3'-5')adenosine and have solved the three-dimensional structure to atomic resolution by x-ray crystallography. This has allowed the direct visualization of intercalative binding by this drug to a fragment of a nucleic acid double helix. (+info)
Consequences of methotrexate inhibition of purine biosynthesis in L5178Y cells.
Addition of 1 muM methotrexate to cultures of L5178Y cells results in an initial inhibition of thymidine, uridine, and leucine incorporation into acid-insoluble material followed, after about 10 hr, by a partial recovery in the extent of incorporation of these precursors. Acid-soluble adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate concentrations are greatly reduced initially, but guanosine triphosphate concentrations appear to recover partially by 10 hr. Acid-soluble uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate concentrations initially increase after methotrexate treatment but then, with time, they too decline. Hypoxanthine and guanine are more effective than is adenine in overcoming the methotrexate-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation. These results suggest that, in the presence of methotrexate, guanine nucleotides become limiting for nucleic acid synthesis before adenine nucleotides do. The block of purine de novo synthesis in L5178Y cells by methotrexate is almost complete and is not reversed with time. This suggests that the additional purine nucleotides that are available for nucleic acid synthesis 8 to 10 hr after addition of methotrexate are being derived from nucleic acid breakdown. Consistent with this is the observed reduction in the number of polyribosomes and hence, presumably in messenger RNA levels. (+info)