Seroepidemiology of infection with human papillomavirus 16, in men and women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.
BACKGROUND: The study sought to characterize the seroprevalence, seropersistence, and seroincidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 antibody, as well as the behavioral risk factors for HPV-16 seropositivity. METHODS: Serologic data at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up visits were used to examine the seroprevalence, seropersistence, and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody in 1595 patients attending United States clinics treating sexually transmitted disease. Testing for antibody to HPV-16 was performed by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using viruslike particles. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HPV-16 antibody was 24.5% overall and was higher in women than in men (30.2% vs. 18.7%, respectively). In those who were HPV-16 seropositive at baseline, antibody response persisted to 12 months in 72.5% of women and in 45.6% of men. The seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody was 20.2/100 person-years (py) overall, 25.4/100 py in women, and 15.7/100 py in men. In multivariate analysis, the seroprevalence of HPV-16 antibody was significantly associated with female sex, age >20 years, and the number of episodes of sex with occasional partners during the preceding 3 months, whereas the seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody was significantly associated with female sex, age >20 years, baseline negative ELISA result greater than the median value, and the number of episodes of unprotected sex with occasional partners during the preceding 3 months. CONCLUSION: Sex- and age-related differences in both the seropositivity and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody persisted after adjustment for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, and behavioral risk factors during the preceding 3 months were stronger predictors of the seroprevalence and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody than was lifetime sexual behavior. (+info)
Fifty ways to leave your rubber: how men in Mombasa rationalise unsafe sex.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the reasons why men who have sex with sex workers in Kenya refuse to use condoms in order to develop potential interventions that might help to overcome these barriers. METHODS: We conducted participant observations over a period of 2 months in the bars, discos, shebeens, and guesthouses of Mombasa, Kenya, where many of the sexual transactions are initiated. RESULTS: Analysis of the participant observations revealed at least 50 reasons for not using a condom, which we grouped into six categories: condoms are not pleasurable, condoms are defective, condoms are harmful, condoms are unnecessary, condoms are too hard to use, and external forces prohibit using condoms. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the reasons men say they do not use condoms would be difficult to affect directly. Others are the result of gaps in knowledge and have not been impacted through better communication strategies. Finally, some of the reasons for not using condoms, such as men's weaknesses, and the loss of pleasure, could possibly be addressed through the introduction of female controlled devices. However, the most important conclusion of this paper is that men who pay for sex do so because it is pleasurable and many men do not find the male condom pleasurable. Therefore, messages targeted at men who have sex with sex workers may not be 100% successful if they only emphasise the benefits of condom use as disease control. (+info)
The association between gang involvement and sexual behaviours among detained adolescent males.
OBJECTIVE: Data were collected from 270 detained male adolescents (aged 14-18 years) to determine the association between ever having been in a gang and a range of sexual behaviours such as sexual activity, male condom use, sex with multiple partners, and drug use during sex. METHODS: Participants answered survey questions using audio computer assisted self interviewing (A-CASI) procedures, which assessed demographic, family factors, history of gang membership, and sexual behaviours. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for demographic, socioeconomic status, and family factors, indicated that adolescents who reported having been in a gang, relative to their peers reporting no gang involvement, were 5.7 times more likely to have had sex, 3.2 times more likely to have got a girl pregnant, and almost four times more likely to have been "high" on alcohol or other drugs during sexual intercourse, have had sex with a partner who was "high" on alcohol or other drugs, or have had sex with multiple partners concurrently. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that having been in a gang can discriminate between levels of STI associated risk behaviours among an otherwise high risk population-detained adolescent males. (+info)
HIV, sexual risk, and ethnicity among men in England who have sex with men.
OBJECTIVES: To examine ethnic group differences in HIV testing history and sexual HIV risk behaviours that may account for such differences, among men in England who have sex with men (MSM), in order to inform HIV prevention planning priorities. METHODS: A self completion survey in the summer of 2001 was carried out in collaboration with community based health promoters. Three recruitment methods were used: "gay pride" festivals, health promoter distributed leaflets, internet version advertised with gay service providers. The leaflet was produced with an alternative cover for targeted recruitment of black men. RESULTS: In a sample of 13,369 MSM living in England, 17.0% were from minority ethnic groups and 5.4% had tested HIV positive. Compared to the white British majority, Asian men were 0.32 times as likely to be living with diagnosed HIV infection, while black men were 2.06 times as likely to be doing so. Among men who had not tested HIV positive, Asian men were less likely to have sex with a known HIV positive partner, while black men were more likely to have insertive unprotected anal intercourse both with a partner they knew to be HIV positive and with a partner whose HIV status they did not know. CONCLUSIONS: Among MSM in England, HIV prevalence is higher among black men and lower among Asian men compared with the white British majority. Increased sexual HIV risk behaviour, especially exposure during insertive anal intercourse, accounts for some of this difference. HIV prevention programmes for MSM and African people should both prioritise black MSM. (+info)
Trends in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men 1998-2003: implications for HIV prevention and sexual health promotion.
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men between 1998 and 2003 by type and HIV status of partner. METHODS: Homosexual men (n=4264) using London gyms were surveyed annually between 1998 and 2003 (range 498-834 per year). Information was collected on HIV status, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the previous 3 months, and type of partner for UAI. High risk sexual behaviour was defined as UAI with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2003, the percentage of men reporting high risk sexual behaviour with a casual partner increased from 6.7% to 16.1% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 1.46, p <0.001). There was no significant change in the percentage of men reporting high risk sexual behaviour with a main partner alone (7.8%, 5.6%, p=0.7). These patterns were seen for HIV positive, negative and never tested men alike regardless of age. The percentage of HIV positive men reporting UAI with a casual partner who was also HIV positive increased from 6.8% to 10.3% (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.58, p <0.05). CONCLUSION: The increase in high risk sexual behaviour among London homosexual men between 1998 and 2003 was seen only with casual and not with main partners. STI/HIV prevention campaigns among London homosexual men should target high risk practices with casual partners since these appear to account entirely for the recent increase in high risk behaviour. (+info)
HIV related behaviours and attitudes among Chinese men who have sex with men in Hong Kong: a population based study.
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of men having sex with men (MSM) and their HIV related behaviours and attitudes among Chinese men in Hong Kong. METHODS: A large scale, random, population based, anonymous telephone survey of 14 963 men between the ages of 18-60 was conducted. The overall response rate was approximately 57%. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 4.6% had ever engaged in MSM activity. In the 6 months preceding the survey, 2.0% had engaged in MSM behaviours (active MSM) and 0.5% reported having engaged in anal sex MSM behaviours. Among anal sex MSM, consistent condom use was 42.9% with male non-commercial sex partners and even lower with male commercial sex partners (35.7%). Approximately 11% of anal sex MSM and 4.1% of the non-anal sex MSM had contracted an STD in the last 6 months. The prevalence of HIV testing was only 20.6% among anal sex MSM and 11.9% among non-anal sex MSM. CONCLUSIONS: Active MSM in Hong Kong are at high risk of HIV infection. The belief of low vulnerability to HIV is prevalent among active MSM in Hong Kong with only 2.0% believing that their chances of HIV infection as being "very likely." (+info)
Use of recreational Viagra among men having sex with men.
OBJECTIVE: Given the potential for Viagra (sildenafil) use to foster greater friction during sex (owing to enlarged erection size) and prolonged sex, the recreational use of this substance warrants investigation in the context of STI risk. Thus, an exploratory study was conducted to identify bivariate correlates of recreational (non-prescription) Viagra use among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a popular sex resort for men located in the southern United States. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Behavioural measures, including Viagra use, were assessed using a 3 month recall period. RESULTS: Of 164 men asked to participate, 91% completed a self administered questionnaire. Men resided in 14 states, most of which were located in the southern United States. Their average age was 40 years. Most (93%) men self identified as white. The median annual income interval was $25,000 to $50,000. One sixth (16.7%) reported being HIV positive. 16% reported using non-prescription Viagra. Age (p=0.41), income (p=0.32), and HIV serostatus (p=0.85) were not associated with Viagra use. Of men recently using ecstasy during sex, 35% reported Viagra use compared to 13% among those not using ecstasy (p=0.01). Of men recently using cocaine during sex, 37% reported Viagra use compared to 13% among those not using cocaine (p=0.009). Use of "poppers" approached, but did not achieve, statistical significance as a correlate of Viagra use (p=0.06). Recent frequency of unprotected anal sex (p=0.79), fisting (p=0.10), rimming (p=0.64), and having five or more sex partners (p=0.09) were not associated with Viagra use. CONCLUSION: Recreational Viagra use was relatively common among men, regardless of age or HIV serostatus. Viagra use was associated with men's substance abuse behaviours rather than their sexual risk behaviours. (+info)
Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among South American men who have sex with men.
OBJECTIVES: Sex among men constitutes an important route of transmission for HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in Latin America. Seeking better understanding of risk behaviours in this region, we determined the seroprevalence, potential risk factors, and geographic distribution of HIV-1 among groups of men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Seroepidemiological, cross sectional studies of 13,847 MSM were conducted in seven countries of South America during the years 1999-2002. Volunteers were recruited in city venues and streets where anonymous questionnaires and blood samples were obtained. HIV-1 infection was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening and western blot (WB) confirmatory tests. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence varied widely (overall 12.3%, range 11.0%-20.6%). The highest HIV-1 seroprevalence was noted in Bolivia (20.6%) and the lowest in Peru (11.0%). Predictors of HIV-1 infection varied among countries; however, a history of previous sexually transmitted disease (STD) was associated with a consistent increased risk (ORs=1.9-2.9, AORs=1.8-2.7). Multiple weekly sexual contacts was found to represent a secondary risk factor in Ecuador, Peru, and Argentina (ORs=1.6-2.9, AORs=1.6-3.1), whereas use of drugs such as cocaine was found to increase risk in Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay (ORs=2.5-6.5, AORs=2.6-6.1). CONCLUSION: The results of this study illustrate an elevated HIV-1 seroprevalence among MSM participants from Andean countries. A previous STD history and multiple partners predicted HIV-1 infection in the seven countries of South America. In Southern Cone countries, HIV-1 infection was also associated with use of illegal drugs such as cocaine. (+info)