(1/2485) Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates.
OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. METHODS: Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. RESULTS: The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies. (+info)
(2/2485) The Health Sciences and Human Services Library: "this is one sweet library".
The opening of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in April, 1998, was a highly anticipated event. With its unique architecture and stunning interior features, it is a signature building for the university in downtown Baltimore. The building is equipped with state-of-the-art technology, but has a warm, inviting atmosphere making it a focal point for the campus community. Its highly functional, flexible design will serve the staff and users well into the twenty-first century. (+info)
(3/2485) Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.
This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants. (+info)
(4/2485) Emergency medical training for dental students.
Twenty-four of the thirty-two German universities that have dental schools replied to a questionnaire survey that showed that all the schools responding held lectures on the topic "Medical Emergencies" although this is not mandatory for registration. All of the universities in the former East Germany also offered practical training sessions as part of the curriculum. The proportion of West German universities offering such courses is only 60%. The basic essentials of the theory and practice of emergency medicine should only be taught in courses with mandatory participation. (+info)
(5/2485) Psychosocial and educational services for female college students with genital human papillomavirus infection.
CONTEXT: College-age women have a high risk of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which may have substantial psychosocial and physical effects. Young women who become infected need information and support from health care professionals, but little is known about providers' attitudes toward or provision of interventions for helping women cope with HPV. METHODS: A survey of 73 nurse practitioners and 70 physicians in college-based health clinics explored their perceptions of the need for psychosocial and educational interventions and their practices regarding such services for HPV patients. Analysis of variance and chi-square testing were used to examine differences by providers' type and gender. RESULTS: At least 86% of providers agree that HPV infection has a variety of psychosocial effects on young women, but only 54% spend at least 10 minutes providing education and counseling to all of their HPV patients. Roughly 80-90% routinely take a sexual history, explain the potential of HPV recurrence and discuss the risk of cancer with HPV patients; however, fewer than half always offer a variety of other interventions that could help patients cope with the diagnosis and promote preventive behaviors. Female providers are more aware of the psychosocial impact of HPV and the need for support than are male providers. However, nurse practitioners provide counseling and educational interventions more frequently than do physicians, even when gender is controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: College-based health providers need to improve the content of the counseling and education they offer to women with HPV, as well as the consistency with which they deliver those interventions. When they are unable to provide services, they should be able to refer patients elsewhere. (+info)
(6/2485) Tales from the front lines: the creative essay as a tool for teaching genetics.
In contrast to the more typical mock grant proposals or literature reviews, we describe the use of the creative essay as a novel tool for teaching human genetics at the college level. This method has worked well for both nonmajor and advanced courses for biology majors. The 10- to 15-page essay is written in storylike form and represents a student's response to the choice of 6-8 scenarios describing human beings coping with various genetic dilemmas. We have found this tool to be invaluable both in developing students' ability to express genetic concepts in lay terms and in promoting student awareness of genetic issues outside of the classroom. Examples from student essays are presented to illustrate these points, and guidelines are suggested regarding instructor expectations of student creativity and scientific accuracy. Methods of grading this assignment are also discussed. (+info)
(7/2485) Invasive meningococcal disease among university undergraduates: association with universities providing relatively large amounts of catered hall accommodation.
The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among UK university students and non-students of similar age was investigated. In addition, we sought to identify structural risk factors associated with high rates of IMD in individual universities. Cases were ascertained via Consultants in Communicable Disease Control (or equivalent officers) between September 1994 and March 1997. Data on individual universities were obtained from university accommodation officers. University students had an increased annual rate of invasive meningococcal disease (13.2/10(5), 95% CI 11.2-15.2) compared with non-students of similar age in the same health districts (5.5/10(5), CI 4.7-6.4) and in those health districts without universities (3.7/10(5), CI 2.9-4.4). This trend was highly significant. Regression analysis demonstrated catered hall accommodation to be the main structural risk factor. Higher rates of disease were observed at universities providing catered hall places for > 10% of their student population (15.3/10(5), CI 11.8-18;8) compared with those providing places for < 10% of students (5.9/10(5), CI 4.1-7.7). The majority of IMD amongst students was caused by serogroup B organisms. University students in the UK are at increased risk of IMD compared with non-students of a similar age. The incidence of IMD tends to be greatest at universities with a high provision of catered hall accommodation. (+info)
(8/2485) Physical activity and risk of lung cancer.
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been proposed to decrease lung cancer risk; however, few data are available. Further, no studies have examined specific kinds and intensities of activities. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among 13 905 male Harvard University alumni (mean age, 58.3 years), free of cancer. Men reported their walking, stair climbing and participation in sports or recreation on baseline questionnaires in 1977, and the occurrence of lung cancer on follow-up questionnaires in 1988 and 1993. Death certificates were obtained for decedents through 1992 to determine lung cancers not previously reported. RESULTS: During follow-up, 245 men developed lung cancer. Adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, and body mass index, the relative risks of lung cancer associated with <4200, 4200-8399, 8400-12 599 and > or =12 600 kJ/week of estimated energy expenditure at baseline were 1.00 (referent), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.64-1.18), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.52-1.11), and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41-0.89), respectively; P trend = 0.0008. Similar trends were observed among non-smokers or former smokers in 1977 (82.7% of men) as well as among those who smoked >20 cigarettes a day in 1977 (8.0%), although the findings in the latter group were not statistically significant, possibly due to the small number. Walking, climbing stairs and participating in activities of at least moderate intensity (> or =4.5 MET, or multiples of resting metabolic rate) were each inversely associated with lung cancer risk, independent of the other activity components. However, light intensity activities (<4.5 MET) did not predict lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that physical activity may be associated with lower risk of lung cancer among men. An energy expenditure of 12 600 kJ/week, achievable by perhaps 6-8 hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity, may significantly lower risk. Further studies are required to confirm these observations. (+info)