(1/209) Accuracy of application of USDA beef quality and yield grades using the traditional system and the proposed seven-grade yield grade system.
Beef carcasses (n = 5,542) were evaluated by three USDA on-line graders and compared with the computed expert USDA quality (QG) and yield grades (YG) during 8-h shifts at a major beef-processing facility for a 2-wk period to evaluate the accuracy of applying USDA QG and YG within the traditional five-grade and the proposed seven-grade (segregating YG 2 and 3 into YG 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B) YG systems. Quality grade distribution of the carcasses was 1.1% Prime, 50.0% Choice, 43.8% Select, and 5.1% No-Roll. Accuracy of applying QG was not affected (P>.05) by changing from the five-grade (91.5%) to either the seven-grade system, when determining only QG (94.3%), or the seven-grade system, when determining QG and YG (95.0%). Calculated expert YG successfully segregated carcasses into their respective YG, but on-line graders could not differentiate between YG 4 and 5 in the seven-grade systems. The application of YG in the five-grade system was more accurate (P<.05) than either of the seven-grade systems. A trend existed for on-line graders to undergrade carcasses as the numerical YG increased. Total accuracy of applying YG decreased by 19.4 to 21.8% when switching from the five-grade to the seven-grade system. The segmentation of USDA YG 2 and 3 into YG 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B resulted in a decrease in the ability of on-line graders to accurately apply the YG. (+info)
(2/209) Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top loin steak.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top loin steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top loin steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Respondents in San Francisco and Philadelphia cooked their top loin steaks to lower degrees of doneness than those in Chicago and Houston. Outdoor grilling was the most common method of cookery for top loin steaks in all cities. Consumers had the highest preference for Top Choice steaks (P < .05) and the lowest preference for Low Select steaks (P < .05). Consumer OLIKE scores were the highest (P < .05) for steaks cooked to a medium rare or lesser degree of doneness. Consumers preferred (P < .05) medium and well done or more degrees of doneness over medium well. The interaction of city x cooking method was significant for all steak palatability attributes. The differences in consumer preparation techniques among cities present challenges for the beef industry to develop market-specific promotional campaigns. (+info)
(3/209) Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top sirloin steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top sirloin steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Top sirloin steaks, regardless of city, were consistently cooked to well done or higher degrees of doneness. Dry-heat methods such as outdoor grilling, broiling, and indoor grilling were the most frequent cooking methods used. Four significant interactions existed for OLIKE: USDA quality grade x cooking method (P = .02), city x cooking method (P = .0001), city x degree of doneness (P = .01), and cooking method x degree of doneness (P = .009). Greater differences were found between cooking methods within USDA quality grade than between USDA quality grades within cooking method. Consumers in Houston rated steaks cooked by outdoor grilling higher than those from the other cities, and steaks cooked by indoor grilling were rated the highest among all cooking methods by consumers in Chicago. In Chicago, steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness tended to receive higher ratings, but few differences between degrees of doneness in the other three cities were detected. For outdoor grilling, broiling, and pan-frying, the trend was for OLIKE ratings to decline as degree of doneness increased. The lowest customer satisfaction ratings tended to be given to top sirloin steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness, and consumers most frequently cooked steaks to at least the well done stage. Consumer information programs or the development of postmortem techniques that would ensure acceptable palatability of top sirloin steaks may need to be developed. (+info)
(4/209) Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steak.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top round steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top round steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Stir-frying, braising, and simmering and stewing consistently produced higher consumer attribute ratings. There were clear OLIKE rating differences (P = .0001) for top round steaks among the four cities. The highest ratings were given by consumers in Houston, and the lowest ratings were given by consumers in Philadelphia (P < .05). There were two interactions for OLIKE: USDA quality grade x degree of doneness (P = .002) and degree of doneness x cooking method (P = .02). Higher ratings generally were given to steaks cooked to medium rare or less or to very well degrees of doneness. Stir-frying, braising, and simmering and stewing were preferred at lower degrees of doneness. Customer satisfaction with the top round steak is very dependent on how it is cooked and by whom it is consumed. (+info)
(5/209) Tenderness classification of beef: IV. Effect of USDA quality grade on the palatability of "tender" beef longissimus when cooked well done.
The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of USDA quality grade on the palatability of "tender" longissimus when cooked well done. Warner-Bratzler shear force was determined on longissimus thoracis steaks aged 3 or 14 d postmortem (cooked to 70 degrees C) from carcasses of 692 steers and heifers. Steaks from 31 carcasses with Modest or Moderate marbling scores (Top Choice) and steaks from 31 carcasses with Slight00 to Slight40 marbling scores (Low Select) were selected for this experiment from carcasses identified as "tender" (shear force < 5.0 kg at 3 d postmortem). Longissimus thoracis steaks with 3 or 14 d of postmortem aging were cooked to 80 degrees C and evaluated by a trained sensory descriptive attribute panel. Top Choice steaks had higher (P < .05) juiciness (5.8 vs 5.3) and beef flavor intensity ratings (4.9 vs 4.6) than Low Select steaks. Aging of steaks for 14, rather than 3, d postmortem improved (P < .05) beef flavor intensity rating (4.8 vs 4.7) but not (P > .05) juiciness rating (5.6 vs 5.5). The interaction (P < .05) of quality grade and aging time for tenderness rating indicated that Top Choice steaks were more tender (P < .05) with 3 d of aging than steaks from Low Select carcasses (6.3 vs 5.8), but steaks from Top Choice and Low Select carcasses had similar (P > .05) tenderness ratings after 14 d of aging (7.0 and 6.8). Compared to palatability of steaks from Low Select carcasses, the palatability of steaks from Top Choice carcasses was less affected by elevated degree of doneness in "tender" longissimus thoracis, especially when steaks were aged for only 3 d. Although differences in sensory traits between Top Choice and Low Select steaks were small, the consumers who cook beef well done may benefit from implementation of tenderness classification in conjunction with USDA quality grade. (+info)
(6/209) Dual-component video image analysis system (VIASCAN) as a predictor of beef carcass red meat yield percentage and for augmenting application of USDA yield grades.
An improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCAN to 1) predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and 2) augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving accuracy of grade placement. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 240) were evaluated using VIASCAN, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before fabrication of carcasses to each of three fat-trim levels. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, VIASCAN estimates, and VIASCAN estimated ribeye area used to augment actual and expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, and hot carcass weight), respectively, 1) accounted for 51, 37, 46, and 55% of the variation in fabricated yields of commodity-trimmed subprimals, 2) accounted for 74, 54, 66, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals, and 3) accounted for 74, 54, 71, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of very closely trimmed subprimals. The VIASCAN system predicted fabrication yields more accurately than current online yield grading and, when certain VIASCAN-measured traits were combined with some USDA yield grade factors in an augmentation system, the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, at packing plant line speeds, to a level matching that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate. (+info)
(7/209) Food irradiation: a public health opportunity.
Public health scientists have had an interest in food irradiation for a hundred years and more. The first investigations occurred within a few years of the discovery of x-ray and short wavelength by the German physicist Roentgen, in 1895. German and French scientists carried on studies on pasteurization of food by radiation until 1914 and the war years. The problem was an unacceptable taste following irradiation. In 1921, the x-ray was reported by the scientists of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to be effective in killing Trichinella cysts in pork and that it could kill disease-causing organisms and halt food spoilage. (+info)
(8/209) Using live estimates and ultrasound measurements to predict beef carcass cutability.
Commercial slaughter steers (n = 329) and heifers (n = 335) were selected to vary in frame size, muscle score, and carcass fat thickness to study the effectiveness of live evaluation and ultrasound as predictors of carcass composition. Three trained personnel evaluated cattle for frame size, muscle score, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and USDA quality and yield grade. Live and carcass real-time ultrasound measures for 12th-rib fat thickness and longissimus muscle area were taken on a subset of the cattle. At the time of slaughter, carcass ultrasound measures were taken at "chain speed." After USDA grade data were collected, one side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless primals/subprimals and trimmed to .64 cm of external fat. Simple correlation coefficients showed a moderately high positive relationship between 12th rib fat thickness and fat thickness measures obtained from live estimates (r = .70), live ultrasound (r = .81), and carcass ultrasound (r = .73). The association between estimates of longissimus muscle area and carcass longissimus muscle area were significant (P < .001) and were higher for live evaluation (r = .71) than for the ultrasonic measures (live ultrasound, r = .61; carcass ultrasound, r = .55). Three-variable regression equations, developed from the live ultrasound measures, explained 57% of the variation in percentage yield of boneless subprimals, followed by live estimates (R2 = .49) and carcass ultrasound (R2 = .31). Four-variable equations using frame size, muscle score, and selected fat thickness and weight measures explained from 43% to 66% of the variation for the percentage yield of boneless subprimals trimmed to .64 cm. Live ultrasound and(or) live estimates are viable options for assessing carcass composition before slaughter. (+info)