PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function.
The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function. (+info)
Streptavidin facilitates internalization and pulmonary targeting of an anti-endothelial cell antibody (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1): a strategy for vascular immunotargeting of drugs.
Conjugation of drugs with antibodies to surface endothelial antigens is a potential strategy for drug delivery to endothelium. We studied antibodies to platelet-endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, a stably expressed endothelial antigen) as carriers for vascular immunotargeting. Although 125I-labeled anti-PECAM bound to endothelial cells in culture, the antibody was poorly internalized by the cells and accumulated poorly after intravenous administration in mice and rats. However, conjugation of biotinylated anti-PECAM (b-anti-PECAM) with streptavidin (SA) markedly stimulated uptake and internalization of anti-PECAM by endothelial cells and by cells expressing PECAM. In addition, conjugation with streptavidin markedly stimulated uptake of 125I-labeled b-anti-PECAM in perfused rat lungs and in the lungs of intact animals after either intravenous or intraarterial injection. The antioxidant enzyme catalase conjugated with b-anti-PECAM/SA bound to endothelial cells in culture, entered the cells, escaped intracellular degradation, and protected the cells against H2O2-induced injury. Anti-PECAM/SA/125I-catalase accumulated in the lungs after intravenous injection or in the perfused rat lungs and protected these lungs against H2O2-induced injury. Thus, modification of a poor carrier antibody with biotin and SA provides an approach for facilitation of antibody-mediated drug targeting. Anti-PECAM/SA is a promising candidate for vascular immunotargeting of bioactive drugs. (+info)
Inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulate the release of soluble tie receptor from human endothelial cells via metalloprotease activation.
Activation of endothelial cells, important in processes such as angiogenesis, is regulated by cell surface receptors, including those in the tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. Receptor activity, in turn, can be modulated by phosphorylation, turnover, or proteolytic release of a soluble extracellular domain. Previously, we demonstrated that release of soluble tie-1 receptor from endothelial cells by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is mediated through protein kinase C and a Ca2+-dependent protease. In this study, the release of soluble tie-1 was shown to be stimulated by inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but not by growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha). Release of soluble tie by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or VEGF occurred within 10 minutes of stimulation and reached maximal levels within 60 minutes. Specificity was shown by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis; endothelial cells exhibited a significant decrease in cell surface tie-1 expression in response to TNF, whereas expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and CD31 was stable. In contrast, tie-1 expression on megakaryoblastic UT-7 cells was unaffected by PMA or TNFalpha. Sequence analysis of the cleaved receptor indicated that tie-1 was proteolyzed at the E749/S750 peptide bond in the proximal transmembrane domain. Moreover, the hydroxamic acid derivative BB-24 demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of cytokine-, PMA-, and VEGF-stimulated shedding, suggesting that the tie-1 protease was a metalloprotease. Protease activity in a tie-1 peptide cleavage assay was (1) associated with endothelial cell membranes, (2) specifically activated in TNFalpha-treated cells, and (3) inhibited by BB-24. Additionally, proliferation of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, but not bFGF, was inhibited by BB-24, suggesting that the release of soluble tie-1 receptor plays a role in VEGF-mediated proliferation. This study demonstrated that the release of soluble tie-1 from endothelial cells is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines and VEGF through the activation of an endothelial membrane-associated metalloprotease. (+info)
Cooperation between VEGF and TNF-alpha is necessary for exposure of active tissue factor on the surface of human endothelial cells.
This study was undertaken to characterize tissue factor (TF) induction, localization, and functional activity in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (rVEGF) and recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha). rVEGF (1 nmol/L) and rTNF-alpha (500 U/mL) synergistically increased TF mRNA, protein, and total activity, as measured in cell lysates. To examine surface TF expression, living cells were treated with antibody to TF and examined microscopically. Almost no staining was seen in control cells or cells treated with a single agent. In contrast, cells treated with both agonists showed intense membrane staining with surface patches, appearing as buds by confocal microscopy. To determine surface TF activity, studies were performed using a parallel-plate flow chamber, which allows detection of factor Xa generation on living cells. rVEGF and rTNF-alpha induced little surface TF activity (0.032+/-0.008 and 0.014+/-0.008 fmol/cm2, respectively). In combination, they significantly increased TF expression on the cell surface (0.429+/-0.094 fmol/cm2, P<0.05). These data indicate that the synergistic effect of rVEGF and rTNF-alpha is necessary to generate functional TF on the surface of endothelial cells. The requirement for multiple agonists to expose active TF may serve to protect endothelial cells from acting as a procoagulant surface, even under conditions of cell perturbation. (+info)
Irradiation induces upregulation of CD31 in human endothelial cells.
Radiation-induced vascular injury is believed to be a major factor contributing to parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis and necrosis in normal tissue after radiotherapy. In this study irradiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly increased adherence of U-937 cells in a time-dependent manner. Given the potential multifunctional role of CD31 in the vasculature we have examined the possible effects of irradiation on levels of CD31 expression in HUVECs. Irradiation upregulated CD31 expression on HUVECs, independently of initial plating density and radiation-induced changes such as cell number, cell cycle stage, or cell size. CD31 mRNA levels were raised in irradiated HUVECs relative to controls. Both CD31 mRNA and surface protein showed similar changes, suggesting that the increase in mRNA in irradiated HUVECs is responsible for the elevation in cell surface protein. A semi-quantitative study of tissue specimens from patients who had received radiotherapy indicated that CD31 staining in the blood vessels from irradiated tissues was increased compared with controls. Endothelial CD31 is important in the transmigration of leukocytes. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of monoclonal antibody to CD31 significantly inhibited the transmigration of human peripheral blood leukocytes through a monolayer of irradiated HUVECs. Taken together these data strongly suggest that irradiation induces a marked increase in CD31 expression on endothelial cells as part of a general response to irradiation. Its upregulation may play an important role in the development of radiation-induced normal tissue damage and thus is a possible target for therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Upregulation of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide synthase mediates the apoptosis-suppressive effects of shear stress on endothelial cells.
Physiological levels of laminar shear stress completely abrogate apoptosis of human endothelial cells in response to a variety of stimuli and might therefore importantly contribute to endothelial integrity. We show here that the apoptosis-suppressive effects of shear stress are mediated by upregulation of Cu/Zn SOD and NO synthase. Shear stress-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis in response to exogenous oxygen radicals, oxidized LDL, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was associated with complete inhibition of caspase-3-like activity, the central effector arm executing the apoptotic cell death program in endothelial cells. Shear stress-dependent upregulation of Cu/Zn SOD and NO synthase blocks activation of the caspase cascade in response to apoptosis-inducing stimuli. These findings establish the upregulation of Cu/Zn SOD and NO synthase by shear stress as a central protective cellular mechanism to preserve the integrity of the endothelium after proapoptotic stimulation. (+info)
Enzymatically modified, nonoxidized LDL induces selective adhesion and transmigration of monocytes and T-lymphocytes through human endothelial cell monolayers.
Circulating monocytes and T lymphocytes extravasate through the endothelium at sites of developing atheromatous lesions, where they tend to accumulate and mediate the progression of the disease. We have previously demonstrated the presence of an enzymatically degraded, nonoxidized form of LDL (E-LDL) in early human fatty streaks, which possesses major biological properties of an atherogenic lipoprotein. The effects of E-LDL on human endothelial cells have now been studied with respect to adhesion and transmigration of monocytes and T lymphocytes. E-LDL induced a rapid and dose-dependent selective adhesion of monocytes and T lymphocytes to endothelial cell monolayers within 30 minutes of incubation. Maximal increases in the number of adherent monocytes (8-fold) and of adherent T lymphocytes (4-fold) were observed after treatment with 50 microg/mL E-LDL. E-LDL was more active than oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), whereas native LDL produced only minor adhesive effects. Both E-LDL and ox-LDL enhanced transmigration of monocytes and of T lymphocytes through endothelial monolayers. Again, E-LDL was more potent than ox-LDL, inducing transmigration to a similar extent as N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe. In endothelial cells, E-LDL stimulated upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-endothelial cells adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), P-selectin, and E-selectin with distinct kinetics. Analyses with blocking antibodies indicated that ICAM-1 and P-selectin together mediated approximately 70% of cell adhesion, whereas blocking of PECAM-1 had no effect on adhesion but reduced transmigration to less than 50% of controls. E-LDL also upregulated expression of ICAM-1 in human aortic smooth muscle cells, and this correlated with increased adhesion of T lymphocytes. E-LDL is thus able to promote the selective adhesion of monocytes and T lymphocytes to the endothelium, stimulate transmigration of these cells, and foster their retention in the vessel wall by increasing their adherence to smooth muscle cells. These findings underline the potential significance of E-LDL in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (+info)
Phospholipase A2 mediates nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages and acute lung injury in pancreatitis.
OBJECTIVE: Reportedly, nitric oxide (NO) derived from alveolar macrophages (AMs) and increased serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity are associated with the pathogenesis of lung injury in acute pancreatitis. The authors examined the possibility that PLA2 causes, in part, the induction of NO production by AMs in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by selective pancreatic duct ligation (SPL). AMs were stimulated with PLA2 or SPL rat serum, with or without administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. Then NO production from the AMs was measured by the Griess method, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression of AMs was analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cytotoxic effects of AMs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by a 51Cr release assay. In vivo, the effect of quinacrine on lung injury was determined by measuring the arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2), lung weight, and lung permeability using Evans blue dye concentration of SPL rat. RESULTS: In vitro, the serum with high PLA2 activity induced NO production by rat AMs. PLA2 (50 ng/ml) induced significant amounts of NO production, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression, and cytotoxicity toward the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in normal rat AMs, and these activities were significantly inhibited by quinacrine. In vivo, rats with pancreatitis that were given quinacrine showed decreased concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the PaO2, lung edema, and lung permeability were improved significantly. CONCLUSION: PLA2 induces AMs to release NO, which contributes to lung injury in acute pancreatitis. This lung injury was prevented by the administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. (+info)