HIV associated eosinophilic folliculitis--differential diagnosis and management.
Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is a chronic, intensely pruritic condition of unknown pathogenesis that causes marked morbidity in those HIV patients whom it affects. There is a wide differential diagnosis of itchy skin conditions in HIV which are amenable to different treatments. It is therefore essential to take a biopsy of each suspected case and examine multiple sections of the biopsy to confirm or refute a diagnosis of EF. Treatment of EF can be difficult but we hope that by suggesting a rational approach to this and considering possible therapeutic options more patients may be helped with this troublesome dermatosis. (+info)
UVA-1 cold light treatment of SLE: a double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial.
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often implies strong drugs with possibly serious side effects. Thus there is a need for new immunosuppressive treatments. Long wave ultraviolet A (UVA-1) cold light therapy is an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory treatment with a possible systemic effect and few side effects. In the current study low dose UVA-1 cold light treatment was tested to determine whether it reduces disease activity in SLE. METHODS: Eleven patients with SLE were treated with UVA-1 cold light treatment and a placebo light treatment in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. In two consecutive 12 week periods the patients were treated in the first three weeks with UVA-1 and placebo treatment or vice versa. The primary variables were the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and SLE Activity Measure (SLAM). RESULTS: The mean SLAM and SLEDAI showed a significant decrease of 30.4% (p=0.0005) and 37.9% (p=0.016) respectively after three weeks of UVA-1 and a non-significant decline of 9.3% (p=0.43) and 12.2% (p=0.54) respectively after three weeks of placebo treatment. In this small trial the difference in reduction of the disease activity indices during UVA-1 compared with during placebo treatment failed to reach the conventional border of significance (p=0.07). The total score of quality of life measure RAND-36 did not improve significantly, but the subscore for vitality did improve. CONCLUSION: Low dose UVA-1 cold light treatment was strongly suggestive of lowering disease activity in this double blind placebo controlled study, and no side effects occurred. (+info)
Photoactivation of DNA thiobases as a potential novel therapeutic option.
The thiopurines, 6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine, are antileukemic agents that are incorporated into DNA following retrieval by the purine salvage pathway (see  for a review). Their toxicity requires active DNA mismatch repair (MMR), and thiopurine resistance is an acknowledged phenotype of MMR-defective cells [2, 3]. In addition to these direct cytotoxic effects, DNA thiobases have distinctive photochemical properties , the therapeutic potential of which has not been extensively evaluated. We report here that the thiopyrimidine nucleoside 4-thiothymidine is incorporated into DNA. It does not induce MMR-related toxicity, but it interacts synergistically with UVA light and dramatically sensitizes cultured human cells to very low, nonlethal UVA doses. 4-thiothymidine induced UVA dose enhancements of around 100-fold in DNA repair-proficient cells. Nucleotide excision repair-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells were sensitized up to 1000-fold, implicating bulky DNA photoproducts in the lethal effect. The synergistic action of thiothymidine plus UVA required thymidine kinase, indicating a selective toxicity toward rapidly proliferating cells. Cooperative UVA cytotoxicity is a general property of DNA thiobases, and 6-thioguanine and 4-thiodeoxyuridine were also UVA sensitizers. Thiobase/UVA treatment may offer a novel therapeutic approach for the clinical management of nonmalignant conditions like psoriasis or for superficial tumors that are accessible to phototherapy. (+info)
Modulation of cathepsin G expression in severe atopic dermatitis following medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy.
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy (50 J/cm2) has achieved great value within the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of our study was to investigate to what extent UVA1 irradiation is able to modulate the status of protease activity by the use of a monoclonal antibody labeling cathepsin G. METHODS: In order to further elucidate the mechanisms by which medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to an improvement of skin status in patients with AD, biopsy specimens from 15 patients before and after treatment were analyzed immunohistochemically for proteolytic activation. RESULTS: Compared to lesional skin of patients with AD before UVA1 irradiation, the number of cells positive for cathepsin G within the dermal infiltrate decreased significantly after treatment. The decrease of cathepsin G+ cells was closely linked to a substantial clinical improvement in skin condition. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings demonstrated that medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to a modulation of the expression of cathepsin G in the dermal inflammatory infiltrate in patients with severe AD. Cathepsin G may attack laminin, proteoglycans, collagen I and insoluble fibronectin, to provoke proinflammatory events, to degrade the basement membrane, to destroy the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and to increase the endothelial permeability. Therefore, its down-regulation by UVA1 phototherapy may induce the reduction of skin inflammation as well as improvement of the skin condition. (+info)
Endovascular treatment using low-power ultraviolet laser for delayed vasospasm in the rabbit carotid artery model.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously reported that pretreatment with external ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 325 nm before blood exposure prevented the development of chronic vasospasm in rabbit common carotid arteries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of endovascular UV light on vasospasm after blood immersion by using the same animal model. METHODS: The right common carotid arteries in 63 rabbits were enclosed in silicon cuffs on day 0. Sheaths were empty or filled with clotted blood. Thirty minutes after the placement of the sheaths, either alone or with blood, the common carotid arteries were subjected to UV or visible light (442 nm) irradiation via an endovascular approach at a fluence rate of 0.17 W/cm(2). The animals were killed on day 2, 9, or 30. Digital subtraction angiography was performed on days 0 and 2 and at the end point to evaluate the degree of vasospasm. RESULTS: UV treatment significantly prevented the development of vasospasm on day 2. On days 9 and 30, there were no significant differences between UV-treated animals and control animals. The preventive effect reached an approximate plateau with an irradiation time of 10 s. No severe vascular injury, such as perforation, occurred in response to UV treatment during the observation period. UV light was significantly more effective than visible light in preventing vasospasm (P <.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that endovascular UV irradiation after blood exposure has a prophylactic effect on vasospasm and suggest a dependence on irradiation wavelength and duration of irradiation. (+info)
Management of guttate and generalized psoriasis vulgaris: prospective randomized study.
AIM: To assess the efficacy of betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% cream plus ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with and without additional penicillin therapy in the treatment of guttate psoriasis, and to compare the efficacies of oral psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy and systemic retinoids therapy for treatment of generalized psoriasis. METHODS: Sixty patients with guttate (n = 20) and generalized psoriasis vulgaris (n = 40) of various intensity and duration treated at the Department of Dermatology, Medical School in Skopje, from February 2000 to January 2002, were included in this prospective, open-label, randomized, parallel group study. The clinical features of the patients were quantified according to the mean psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) values. Student s t-test for paired samples and two independent samples were used in statistical analysis. RESULTS: The final PASI values were not significantly different for the patients receiving different treatments of guttate psoriasis or generalized psoriasis. The initial PASI values for guttate psoriasis patients treated with betamethasone dipropionate plus UVB with and without penicillin treatment (5.7 +/- 2.1 and 5.9 +/- 2.5, respectively) declined to 0.5 +/- 0.8 and 1.0 +/- 0.9, respectively, after the therapy. The initial PASI values in generalized psoriasis patients receiving PUVA dropped from 24.1 +/- 3.6 to 1.7 +/- 1.5 by the end of the therapy. Finally, pre-treatment PASI values in patients with generalized psoriasis receiving retinoids decreased from 24.6 +/- 3.5 to 0.9 +/- 1.1 after treatment. However, patients receiving systemic retinoids for generalized psoriasis had statistically higher incidence of side effects than patients receiving PUVA therapy (t = 6.458, df = 38, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Penicillin should be applied in addition to local corticosteroids with UVB in the treatment of guttate psoriasis, since the disease may be triggered by a streptococcal infection. In cases of generalized psoriasis vulgaris, PUVA therapy caused fewer side effects than did systemic retinoids. (+info)
Trypanosoma cruzi inactivation in human platelet concentrates and plasma by a psoralen (amotosalen HCl) and long-wavelength UV.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan pathogen that causes Chagas' disease, can be found in the blood of infected individuals for their entire life span. This presents a serious challenge in safeguarding blood products. Transmission of T. cruzi from blood products is a frequent occurrence in Latin America, where Chagas' disease is endemic. This study was designed to determine whether T. cruzi could be inactivated in human platelet concentrates and plasma by a photochemical treatment process with long-wavelength UV A light (UVA, 320 to 400 nm) plus the psoralen amotosalen HCl (Cerus Corporation). Units of platelet concentrates (300 ml) and plasma (300 ml) were intentionally contaminated with approximately 10(6) T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the T. cruzi form found in the bloodstream, per ml. The viability of T. cruzi after photochemical inactivation was determined by their ability to replicate in 3T3 fibroblasts. Controls, including treatment with 150 micro M amotosalen or 3 J/cm(2) UVA alone, did not lead to reduction of the viability of T. cruzi in plasma or platelet concentrates. However, treatment with 150 micro M amotosalen plus 3 J/cm(2) UVA inactivated T. cruzi to undetectable levels in plasma and platelet concentrates. This represented a >5.4-log reduction of T. cruzi in platelet concentrates and >5.0-log reduction of T. cruzi in plasma. We conclude that the amotosalen plus UVA photochemical inactivation technology is effective in inactivating high levels of protozoan pathogens, such as T. cruzi, in platelet concentrates and plasma, as has been previously shown for numerous viruses and bacteria. (+info)
Altered decorin expression of systemic sclerosis by UVA1 (340-400 nm) phototherapy: immunohistochemical analysis of 3 cases.
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet A1 (340-400 nm, UVA1) phototherapy is highly effective in sclerotic lesions of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Histological evaluation of skin specimens obtained before and after UVA1 phototherapy revealed loosening of collagen bundles and the appearance of small collagen fibers. We have previously shown that UVA1 irradiation induced collagenase in vitro study by using SSc fibroblasts. The increased levels of mRNA and protein of decorin in SSc fibroblasts were reported. In this study, we focus on the lesional expression of small dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, decorin that has a role of binding to collagen and fibrillogenesis. CASE PRESENTATION: We employed immunohistochemical analysis of decorin before and after UVA1 phototherapy. The skin specimens from three patients who were effectively treated with UVA1 phototherapy were analysed. Monoclonal antibody 6B6 as the specific reactivity to decorin was used. The increased decorin was focally accumulated in the newly synthesized collagen fibers in the sclerotic lesion of SSc. After UVA1 phototherapy, decorin was decreased in upper to middle dermis, although decorin was slightly increased in papillary dermis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that decreased and normalized levels of accumulated decorin may relate to the efficacy of sclerotic lesions in UVA1 phototherapy. (+info)