Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture. (+info)
Aortic pressure-diameter relationship assessed by intravascular ultrasound: experimental validation in dogs.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic method for evaluating vessel diameter and vessel wall motion. To evaluate the validity of IVUS in assessing changes in the pressure-diameter relationship we compared measurements of abdominal aortic diameters derived from IVUS with those simultaneously obtained at the same site using implanted sonomicrometers in five chronically instrumented conscious dogs and in seven acutely instrumented anesthetized dogs. Five hundred eighty beats were analyzed to obtain peak systolic and end-diastolic diameters and to calculate aortic compliance at different blood pressure levels induced either by an aortic pneumatic cuff or by intravenous injections of nitroglycerin or norepinephrine. IVUS agreed closely with sonomicrometer measurements at different blood pressure levels. However, IVUS slightly but significantly underestimated aortic diameters by 0.6 +/- 0.7 mm for systolic diameters (P < 0.001) and by 0.7 +/- 0.6 mm for diastolic diameters (P < 0.001) compared with the sonomicrometer measurements. We conclude that IVUS is a feasible and reliable method to measure dynamic changes in aortic dimensions and has the potential to provide ready access to assess aortic compliance in humans. (+info)
Effect and outcome of balloon angioplasty and stenting of the iliac arteries evaluated by intravascular ultrasound.
OBJECTIVES: To document the mechanism of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting of the iliac arteries, and to relate the effect to patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven stenotic iliac arteries were examined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and arteriography before and after PTA, and after stent deployment (n = 16). The patients were followed prospectively by duplex scanning at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the intervention. RESULTS: The effect of PTA was established by both compression and stretching with the major contribution arising from stretching. There were differences in the effect of PTA dependent on plaque morphology: in homogeneous eccentric lesions, stretching contributed significantly more than compression to the luminal gain, while stretching and compression contributed equally in concentric or heterogeneous plaques. Stenting of the arteries had no effect on the free luminal area as measured by IVUS. The primary 1-year patency rate was 72%. The patency was related to the free luminal area and diameter and the heterogenicity of the plaque as evaluated by IVUS. The arteriographic measurements did not have any predictive value. CONCLUSION: IVUS was able to document the effect of PTA and stenting in the iliac arteries, and predict the outcome. The luminal gain and reduction in degree of stenosis seemed to be accomplished primarily by stretching of the arteries and to a lesser extent by plaque compression. Stenting did not change the IVUS measurements. Patency was related to the size of the free lumen and the heterogenicity of the plaque. (+info)
In vivo targeting of acoustically reflective liposomes for intravascular and transvascular ultrasonic enhancement.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to target acoustically reflective liposomes to atherosclerotic plaques in vivo for ultrasound image enhancement. BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated the development of acoustically reflective liposomes that can be conjugated for site-specific acoustic enhancement. This study evaluates the ability of liposomes coupled to antibodies specific for different components of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi to target and enhance ultrasonic images in vivo. METHODS: Liposomes were prepared with phospholipids and cholesterol using a dehydration/ rehydration method. Antibodies were thiolated for liposome conjugation with N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate resulting in a thioether linkage between the protein and the phospholipid. Liposomes were conjugated to antifibrinogen or anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (anti-ICAM-1). In a Yucatan miniswine model, atherosclerosis was developed by crush injury of one carotid and one femoral artery and ingestion of a hypercholesterolemic diet. After full plaque development the arteries were imaged (20-MHz intravascular ultrasound catheter and 7.5-MHz transvascular linear probe) after injection of saline, unconjugated liposomes and antibody conjugated liposomes. RESULTS: Conjugated liposomes retained their acoustically reflective properties and provided ultrasonic image enhancement of their targeted structures. Liposomes conjugated to antifibrinogen attached to thrombi and fibrous portions of the atheroma, whereas liposomes conjugated to anti-ICAM-1 attached to early atheroma. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that this novel acoustic agent can provide varying targeting with different antibodies with retention of intravascular and transvascular acoustic properties. (+info)
Adherence by midwives to the Dutch national guidelines on threatened miscarriage in general practice: a prospective study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility for midwives to adhere to Dutch national guidelines on threatened miscarriage in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective recording of appointments by midwives who agreed to adhere to the guidelines on threatened miscarriage. Interviews with the midwives after they had recorded appointments for one year. SETTING: Midwifery practices in The Netherlands. SUBJECTS: 56 midwives who agreed to adhere to the guidelines; 43 midwives actually made records from 156 clients during a period of 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to each recommendation and reasons for non-adherence. RESULTS: The recommendation that a physical examination should take place on the first and also on the follow up appointment was not always adhered to. Reasons for non-adherence were the midwives' criticism of this recommendation, their lack of knowledge or skills, and the specific client situation. Adherence to a follow up appointment after 10 days, a counselling consultation after six weeks, and not performing an ultrasound scan was low. Reasons for non-adherence were mainly based on the midwives' criticism of these recommendations and reluctance on the part of the client. Furthermore, many midwives did not give information and instructions to the client. It is noteworthy that in 13% of the cases the midwife's policy was overridden by the obstetrician taking control of the situation after the midwife had requested an ultrasound scan. CONCLUSIONS: Those recommendations in the guidelines on threatened miscarriage that are most often not adhered to should be reviewed. To reduce conflicts about ultrasound scans and referrals, agreement on the policy on threatened miscarriage should be mutually established between midwives and obstetricians. (+info)
Mild carotid artery atherosclerosis: assessment by 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, with reference to intravascular ultrasound imaging and contrast angiography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3-D TOF MRA) in detection and quantification of mild atherosclerotic changes of carotid arteries with reference to intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and contrast angiography. METHODS: TOF MRA at 1.5 T, IVUS, and selective digital subtraction angiography were performed on 31 extracranial carotid arteries of 27 patients (mean age, 52 years; age range, 17 to 75 years) undergoing neuroendovascular interventions. The atherosclerotic lesions were registered, and quantitative measurements of plaque thickness, luminal diameters, and diameter stenosis were independently performed for the imaging modalities. RESULTS: Among 170 arterial segments analyzed, IVUS revealed a total of 48 atherosclerotic lesions (mean diameter stenosis, 17%; range, 4% to 40%), only 25 of which were depicted on digital subtraction angiography. Analysis of the axial source images of TOF MRA resulted in sensitivity of 77% to 83% and specificity of 71% to 80% in lesion depiction for the 2 readers with reference to IVUS. The values of diameter stenosis measured from MRA and IVUS were closely interrelated (r=0.53 to 0.61, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional TOF MRA is feasible and moderately accurate for evaluation of mild atherosclerotic changes of carotid arteries. (+info)
Effects of intracoronary beta-radiation therapy after coronary angioplasty: an intravascular ultrasound study.
BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation is emerging as a potential solution for the prevention and treatment of restenosis. Its effects on the morphology of unstented vessels cannot be determined by angiography and therefore require the use of intravascular ultrasound. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a 5F noncentered catheter for delivery of a 90Sr/Y source train, 12, 14, or 16 Gy at 2 mm was delivered to native coronary arteries after successful balloon angioplasty in 30 patients. Four patients required stent deployment in the first week. Quantitative coronary angiography and IVUS were performed during the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Binary angiographic restenosis was present in 3 of 30 patients, with target lesion and vessel revascularization performed in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. Angiographic late loss was -0.02+/-0.60 mm, with a -0.09+/-0.46 loss index. IVUS demonstrated no significant reduction in lumen area (from 5.69+/-1.72 mm2 after treatment to 6. 04+/-2.63 mm2 at follow-up), with no significant change in external elastic membrane area (13.71+/-4.54 to 14.22+/-4.71 mm2) over the 6-month follow-up. Wall area was 8.01+/-3.85 mm2 after radiation therapy and 8.19+/-3.44 mm2 at follow-up (P=NS). No significant differences were noted between the different dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: beta-Radiation therapy resulted in a low restenosis rate with negligible late loss by angiography. By IVUS, beta-radiation was shown to inhibit neointima formation, with no reduction of total vessel area at 6-month follow-up. (+info)
Accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysm with intravascular ultrasound scanning: validation with computed tomographic angiography.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) parameters of abdominal aortic aneurysm, used for endovascular grafting, in comparison with computed tomographic angiography (CTA). METHODS: This study was designed as a descriptive study. Between March 1997 and March 1998, 16 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were studied with angiography, IVUS (12.5 MHz), and CTA. The length of the aneurysm and the length and lumen diameter of the proximal and distal neck obtained with IVUS were compared with the data obtained with CTA. The measurements with IVUS were repeated by a second observer to assess the reproducibility. Tomographic IVUS images were reconstructed into a longitudinal format. RESULTS: IVUS results identified 31 of 32 renal arteries and four of five accessory renal arteries. A comparison of the length measurements of the aneurysm and the proximal and distal neck obtained with IVUS and CTA revealed a correlation of 0.99 (P <.001), with a coefficient of variation of 9%. IVUS results tended to underestimate the length as compared with the CTA results (0.48 +/- 0.52 cm; P <.001). A comparison of the lumen diameter measurements of the proximal and distal neck derived from IVUS and CTA showed a correlation of 0.93 (P <.001), with a coefficient of variation of 9%. IVUS results tended to underestimate aneurysm neck diameter as compared with CTA results (0.68 +/- 1.76 mm; P =.006). Interobserver agreement of IVUS length and diameter measurements showed a good correlation (r = 1.0; P <.001), with coefficients of variation of 3% and 2%, respectively, and no significant differences (0.0 +/- 0.16 cm and 0.06 +/- 0.36 mm, respectively). The longitudinal IVUS images displayed the important vascular structures and improved the spatial insight in aneurysmal anatomy. CONCLUSION: Intravascular ultrasound scanning results provided accurate and reproducible measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The longitudinal reconstruction of IVUS images provided additional knowledge on the anatomy of the aneurysm and its proximal and distal neck. (+info)