Tranexamic acid increases peritoneal ultrafiltration volume in patients on CAPD.
OBJECTIVE: The preservation of ultrafiltration (UF) capacity is crucial to maintaining long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the antiplasmin agent tranexamic acid (TNA) increases UF volume in CAPD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients on CAPD, 5 with UF loss and 10 without UF loss, were recruited for the study. The effect of TNA was evaluated with respect to changes in UF volume, peritoneal permeability, peritoneal clearance, bradykinin (BK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) concentration. SETTING: Dialysis unit of the Saiseikai Central Hospital. RESULTS: In patients with UF loss, 2 weeks of treatment with oral TNA produced a significant increase in UF volume in all subjects (5/5).TNA also produced a significant increase in peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine (Cr). However, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) revealed that TNA had no effect on dialysate/plasma (D/P) Cr, Kt/V, or the protein catabolic rate (PCR).TNA also had no effect on net glucose reabsorption. In contrast, significant decreases in BK and blood tPA concentrations in response to TNA treatment were noted. BK concentration in drainage fluid was also reduced. In the case of patients without UF loss,TNA produced an increase in UF volume in 70% (7/10). However, no differences were found in blood and drainage BK and tPA concentrations between theTNA treatment and nontreatment periods in these patients. A comparison of basal BK and tPA concentration showed that there were no differences in these parameters between patients with UF loss and those without loss of UF. Furthermore,TNA given intraperitoneally to a patient also produced a marked increase in UF volume. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests thatTNA enhances UF volume in patients both with and without UF loss. SinceTNA did not affect peritoneal permeability and glucose reabsorption, the mechanism by which TNA exerts an enhancing action on UF is largely unknown. We speculate that it may be associated with suppression of the BK and/or tPA system, at least in patients with UF loss. (+info)
Evidence of splanchnic-brain signaling in inhibition of ingestive behavior by middle molecules.
Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are common symptoms of uremic intoxication. Fractions in the middle molecule weight range, isolated from normal urine and uremic plasma ultrafiltrate, inhibit ingestive behavior in the rat. To investigate their site of action and specificity, male rats were injected intraperitoneally, intravenously, or intracerebroventricularly with concentrated fractions of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine (molecular weight range: 1.0 to 5.0 kD) and tested for ingestive and sexual behavior. An intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of urine fraction (10:1) or 2.0 ml of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate fraction (25:1) inhibited carbohydrate intake by 76.3 and 45.9%, respectively, but an intravenous injection had no effect. However, intravenous injection of higher doses inhibited carbohydrate ingestion. An intracerebroventricular injection of 5 or 10 microl of urine (20:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 13.4 and 41.6%, respectively. An injection of 5 or 10 microl of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate (125:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 22.6 and 49.5%, respectively. Injections of the corresponding fraction from normal plasma ultrafiltrate had no effect. Injection of urine or uremic plasma ultrafiltrate middle molecule fractions did not affect the display of sexual behavior. These results suggest that middle molecule fractions from uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine act in the splanchnic region and/or brain to inhibit food intake and that the effect is specific for ingestive behavior. (+info)
Nitrite determination in human plasma and synovial fluid using reactions of nitric oxide with 3, 5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulphonate (DBNBS).
DBNBS (3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulphonate) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite ions in acid solution to give a radical with a characteristic electron spin resonance spectrum, attributable to a 'DBNBS-NO' product, and comprising a triplet with alphaN=0.96 mT. This is identical with the spectrum obtained when NO, introduced from the gas phase, reacts with DBNBS. Under certain conditions, an additional signal is observed, attributable to oxidation of DBNBS to the radical cation, DBNBS*+ (a triplet with alphaN=1.32 mT). Conditions are described for the determination of nitrite, which avoid this DBNBS oxidation. The height of the low-field signal from the DBNBS-NO product is directly proportional to the nitrite concentration up to about 0.08 mM nitrite. The method has been applied to the measurement of nitrite concentrations in whole blood, plasma and synovial fluid taken from rheumatoid arthritis patients. In order to avoid the oxidation of DBNBS when analysing biological samples of this type, it is necessary to treat the specimen by ultrafiltration as soon as possible after collection and before addition of DBNBS. (+info)
Resonance in the renal vasculature evoked by activation of the sympathetic nerves.
We examined the ability of different frequencies in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to induce oscillations in renal blood flow (RBF). In anesthetized rabbits the renal nerves were stimulated using modulated sine patterns (base frequency 5 Hz, 5-ms duration pulses) that varied in amplitude between 0 and 10 V at a frequency between 0.04 and 1.0 Hz. The strengths of the induced oscillations in RBF were calculated using spectral analysis. Although faster rhythms in simulated SNA >0.6 Hz contributed to the level of vascular tone, 95% of the power in the frequency response curve was below this frequency, indicating a low-pass filtering/integrating characteristic of the vasculature. Frequencies <0.6 Hz were associated with increasing ability to induce oscillations in RBF. The ability of an SNA rhythm at 0.6 Hz to induce a rhythm in RBF was 21 times less than that at 0.25 Hz. At 0.16 Hz there was a distinct peak in the frequency response curve, indicating the vasculature was more sensitive in this frequency band to sympathetic stimulation. Blockade of endogenous nitric oxide by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg) did not alter resting RBF levels nor was the low-pass filtering/integrating characteristic of the vasculature to nerve stimulation changed (i.e., the curve was not shifted left or right); however, there was a selective increase in the sensitivity to stimulation at 0.16 Hz, i.e., larger oscillations in RBF were evoked. These results indicate an ability of SNA to induce resonant oscillations in the renal vasculature and that there may be active and passive modulators of these responses. Naturally occurring oscillations in SNA <0.6 Hz are likely to contribute to the dynamic control of RBF, ensuring it responds rapidly and with high gain to the stimuli of daily life, while filtering out the faster oscillations ensures stable glomerular filtration. (+info)
Erythroid accelerating factor detected in serum from rats with drug induced hemolysis.
We have previously observed that an erythroid enhancing activity presents in rat serum in the early stage of drug induced hemolytic anemia. The further studies on biological and physicochemical aspects of this erythroid accelerating factor (EAF) is described in this paper. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of acetylphenylhydrazine (APH) and serum was obtained from the rats on day 1 after APH injection. It was first fractionated by ultrafiltration on Amicon Diaflo membranes to give a series of fractions lying in the following ranges of molecular weight: 10-30 kDa, 30-50 kDa, 50-100 kDa, and >100 kDa. Among those fractions, largest increase in the number of colony forming unit erythroid CFU-E) colonies was shown in the fraction of >100 kDa that was subsequently fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. EAF activity for CFU-E proliferation was detected in a FPLC fraction corresponding to a molecular weight of about 160 kDa. An addition of EAF significantly increased with dose dependent manner in the number of CFU-E colonies from rat bone marrow mononuclear cells. EAF alone had no burst promoting activity and exhibited no distinct activity to proliferate burst forming unit-erythroid even when interleukin-3 (IL-3) and high concentration (2 U/ml) of erythropoietin (Epo) were added together to the culture. The stimulating effect of EAF on CFU-E was markedly dependent on the presence of adherent cells in the culture. Partially purified protein was relatively heat-unstable (60% at 75 degrees C, 30 minutes) and sensitive to treatment with trypsin and alpha-galactosidase. These results suggest that EAF is a novel factor, possible glycoprotein to reinforce Epo function and is different from various cytokines previously documented because of differences of approximate molecular weight. (+info)
Endothelin mediates renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration during pregnancy in chronically instrumented conscious rats.
Profound vasodilation of the kidneys and other nonreproductive organs transpires during early pregnancy. Because nitric oxide (NO) was found to mediate renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious pregnant rats, and endogenous endothelin (ET) was suggested to be vasodilatory in the renal circulation of nonpregnant rats, we tested whether endothelin mediates the NO-dependent changes in the renal circulation during pregnancy. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured in conscious pregnant and virgin rats before and during infusion of 30 micrograms/min RES-701-1 (a selective ETB receptor subtype antagonist). Baseline GFR and ERPF were significantly increased by 35% in gravid rats relative to virgin controls. During infusion of RES-701-1, the pregnant rats responded more robustly, showing a greater decline in both GFR and ERPF such that renal function converged in the two groups of rats. ERPF also converged in pregnant and virgin rats during infusion of SB-209760, a nonselective ETA/B receptor subtype antagonist. Combined infusion of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME, an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor] and RES-701-1 reduced GFR and ERPF to levels comparable to those reached with either agent given alone, suggesting inhibition of a common vasodilatory pathway. RES-701-1 and SB-209670 significantly lowered the cGMP content of small renal arteries from gravid and virgin rats in vitro, strengthening the link between the renal endothelial ETB receptor subtype and NO. Importantly, we showed that RES-701-1 is not a direct inhibitor of NOS. We conclude that endothelin mediates the NO-dependent changes in the renal circulation of conscious rats during pregnancy. (+info)
Complementary effects of bifidogenic growth stimulators and ammonium sulfate in natural rubber serum powder on Bifidobacterium bifidum.
Natural rubber serum powder, rich in crude protein and carbohydrates, had a strong growth-stimulating activity for Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, which was unable to grow in a fully synthetic medium, B12 assay medium. Natural rubber serum powder was fractionated by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cutoff 1000). The active ultrafiltrate was further concentrated and desalted with an adsorptive microconcentrator, which adsorbs virtually all amino acids and peptides. Through this purification step, it was found that the adsorbed fraction obtained did not stimulate growth independently but acted complementarily with a small amount of ammonium sulfate. The adsorbed fraction was subsequently analyzed on reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, and the activities of the eluates were measured on B12 assay medium with ammonium sulfate. Consequently, it was proved that several peptidic ingredients in the adsorbed fraction increased the growth of B. bifidum. (+info)
Caspases induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria by activating cytosolic factors.
We investigated the ability of caspases (cysteine proteases with aspartic acid specificity) to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria. When Jurkat cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by Fas receptor ligation, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria, an event that was prevented by the caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk (zVal-Ala-Asp-CH2F). Purified caspase-8 triggered rapid cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria in vitro. The effect was indirect, as the presence of cytosol was required, suggesting that caspase-8 cleaves and activates a cytosolic substrate, which in turn is able to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The cytochrome c releasing activity was not blocked by caspase inhibition, but was antagonized by Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleaved Bid, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, which gains cytochrome c releasing activity in response to caspase cleavage. However, caspase-6 and caspase-7 did not cleave Bid, although they initiated cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the presence of cytosol. Thus, effector caspases may cleave and activate another cytosolic substrate (other than Bid), which then promotes cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Mitochondria significantly amplified the caspase-8 initiated DEVD-specific cleavage activity. Our data suggest that cytochrome c release, initiated by the action of caspases on a cytosolic substrates, may act to amplify a caspase cascade during apoptosis. (+info)