An immunoblotting procedure comprising O = 9,12 and H = d antigens as an alternative to the Widal agglutination assay.
AIMS: To compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure. METHODS: 110 sera were used to compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure incorporating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O = 9,12) and flagellar (H = d) antigens. RESULTS: Antibodies to the LPS antigens were detected in 18 sera by the Widal assay and in 37 by immunoblotting. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens were detected in 27 sera by Widal assay and in 25 by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: An immunoblotting procedure incorporating O = 9,12 LPS and H = d flagellar antigens was rapid and more sensitive than the established Widal agglutination assay for providing evidence of infection with S typhi. (+info)
Relative bradycardia is not a feature of enteric fever in children.
We investigated pulse-temperature relationships in 66 children with enteric fever (group 1) and in 76 with other infections (group 2). Group 1 children were older than group 2 children (mean age +/- SD, 91 +/- 36 vs. 66 +/- 32 months, respectively; P < .001) and had mean oral temperatures +/- SD similar to those of group 2 children (38.3 +/- 1.0 vs. 38.3 +/- 0.9 degrees C, respectively; P > .2); however, group 1 children had lower mean baseline pulse rates +/- SD than did group 2 children (119 +/- 25 vs. 127 +/- 28 beats/min, respectively; P < .001). In a multiple linear regression model, pulse rate was independently associated with age (inversely; P < .001) and oral temperature (positively; P < .006) but not with diagnostic group or gender (P > .5). After adjustment of the mean initial pulse rate +/- SD to age of 72 months, there was no difference between group 1 and group 2 children (126 +/- 24 vs. 126 +/- 20 beats/min, respectively; P > .5). From 4 to 72 hours after commencement of treatment, the mean oral temperature in group 1 patients was approximately 0.3 degrees C higher than that in group 2 patients, and the age-adjusted pulse rate was 5 beats/min higher in group 1 children than in group 2 children. These data suggest that relative bradycardia is not characteristic of enteric fever in children. (+info)
Outcome in three groups of patients with typhoid fever in Indonesia between 1948 and 1990.
The outcome in three groups of patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi, treated during three episodes between 1948 and 1990 in Java, Indonesia, was compared by retrospective analysis of hospital records. The study population consisted of three groups of patients. Group I (n = 50) was treated in Batavia (the present Jakarta) from 1948 to 1950, Group II (n = 61) in Yogyakarta from 1952 to 1956, Group III (n = 105) in Semarang from 1989 to 1990. Main outcome measures were days until defervescence, early relapses during hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, complications and mortality. Group I received supportive treatment only, Group II low doses of chloramphenicol (total 12.5 g) and Group III full doses of chloramphenicol (total 27 g); occasionally other antibiotics were used. In Group I, II and III the mean number of days until defervescence was 16, 8 and 6 and the mean number of days in hospital 43, 47 and 15, respectively. Mortality was 26%, 10% and 5% and complications occurred in 38%, 18% and 13%, respectively. Between Group I and Group II the differences in mortality and complications were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared to Group I the proportion of early relapses was higher in Group II, but was zero in Group III. There were significantly fewer gastrointestinal complications in Group II than in Group I (P < 0.01) and even fewer in Group III. When no antibiotic against S. typhi was available, typhoid fever had a protracted course, and only 74% of patients survived. Even with low dosages of chloramphenicol, defervescence was earlier and mortality and complications decreased dramatically, but early relapses were frequent. Full doses of chloramphenicol for a sufficient period of time only slightly reduced mortality and complications further, but eliminated early relapses completely. (+info)
A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water.
From 1 January through 30 June 1997, 8901 cases of typhoid fever and 95 associated deaths were reported in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Of 29 Salmonella serotype Typhi isolates tested, 27 (93%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In a case-control study of 45 patients and 123 controls, Salmonella Typhi infection was associated with drinking unboiled water (matched odds ratio, 7; 95% confidence interval, 3-24; P<.001). Of tap water samples, 97% showed fecal coliform contamination (mean level, 175 cfu/100 mL). Samples taken from water treatment plants revealed that fecal coliform contamination occurred both before and after treatment. Lack of chlorination, equipment failure, and back-siphonage in the water distribution system led to contamination of drinking water. After chlorination and coagulation were begun at the treatment plants and a water conservation campaign was initiated to improve water pressure, the incidence of typhoid fever declined dramatically. (+info)
Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome occurring after typhoid fever: a possible role of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide in the occurrence of diffuse vasculopathy-coagulopathy.
We report a case of well-documented typhoid fever in a 30-year-old woman with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus with asymptomatic lupus anticoagulant and high-titer anticardiolipin antibody (aCL). Despite prompt eradication of the Salmonella typhi obtained with appropriate antibiotic therapy, multiple organ system dysfunction occurred. The central nervous system was involved, with ischemic infarcts in the occipital lobes. High-dose corticosteroid therapy failed to improve the neurologic manifestations, which responded to repeated plasmapheresis. A sharp fall in aCL and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibody titers was recorded before the start of plasmapheresis. At the same time, IgM and IgG antibodies to Salmonella group O:9 lipopolysaccharide became detectable; the IgM antibodies disappeared within 4 months, whereas the IgG antibodies remained detectable during the next 13 months. Despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis developed, leading to chronic renal failure. There is convincing evidence of a link between the S. typhi infection and the ensuing catastrophic syndrome in this patient, probably precipitated by bacterial antigens. (+info)
Azithromycin versus ciprofloxacin for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in a randomized trial in Egypt that included patients with multidrug resistance.
To compare clinical and bacteriological efficacies of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin for typhoid fever, 123 adults with fever and signs of uncomplicated typhoid fever were entered into a randomized trial. Cultures of blood were positive for Salmonella typhi in 59 patients and for S. paratyphi A in 3 cases; stool cultures were positive for S. typhi in 11 cases and for S. paratyphi A in 1 case. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR; resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) was present in isolates of 21 of 64 patients with positive cultures. Of these 64 patients, 36 received 1 g of azithromycin orally once on the first day, followed by 500 mg given orally once daily on the next 6 days; 28 patients received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood cultures were repeated on days 4 and 10 after the start of therapy, and stool cultures were done on days 4, 10, and 28 after the start of therapy. All patients in both groups improved during therapy and were cured. Defervescence (maximum daily temperatures of +info)
Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Kapemba infection in an otherwise healthy middle-aged man.
We report the case of a patient with a Salmonella Kapemba infection, who suffered, 3 weeks after a holiday in Israel, occurrences of high fever and lower back pain for 10 days and icterus for 2 days before admission. Laboratory findings revealed a slight cholestasis and elevation of acute phase protein levels. In the blood culture a Salmonella Kapemba-type organism was cultured. The patient was afebrile for 10 days after hospitalization and then suddenly developed a temperature of 40 degrees C again. At the same time leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and a rise of D-dimer levels were detected. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for a few days, because a disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. With magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy no osteomyelitis or abscess formation could be found. A transesophageal ultrasonography of the heart revealed no signs of endocarditis. In multiple stool cultures no salmonellas could be detected. After antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin the fever and lower back pain subsided, and the patient was discharged a fortnight later. This is the first reported case of typhoid fever due to the bacterium Salmonella Kapemba. (+info)
Salmonella typhi flagella are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes.
The cytokine production patterns of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) were examined in culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated with STF. Consistent with previous findings in volunteers vaccinated with aroC aroD deletion mutants of S. typhi, PBMC from volunteers immunized with the licensed live Ty21a S. typhi vaccine secreted gamma interferon following exposure to STF. Stimulation with STF induced rapid de novo synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), followed by IL-6 and IL-10. Trypsin treatment of STF abrogated their effects, while polymyxin B had no effect. Intracellular cytokine measurements of STF-stimulated PBMC revealed the existence of monocyte subpopulations that produce only TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or both cytokines. Moreover, STF markedly decreased the percentage of CD14(+) cells. These data demonstrate that STF are powerful monocyte activators which may have important implications for vaccine development and for understanding the pathogenesis of S. typhi infection. (+info)