Chronic protein undernutrition and an acute inflammatory stimulus elicit different protein kinetic responses in plasma but not in muscle of piglets.
The changes in protein metabolism of severe childhood malnutrition are generally perceived as a metabolic adaptation to chronic protein undernutrition. However, severe malnutrition is invariably accompanied by infections which also have profound effects on protein metabolism. This study aimed to distinguish the effect of protein undernutrition from that of an inflammatory stimulus on muscle and plasma protein synthesis rates. Two groups of five piglets consumed diets containing either 23% or 3% protein for 4 wk. They then were infused intravenously with 2H3-leucine before and 48 h after subcutaneous injections of turpentine to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle protein and both the FSR and the absolute synthesis rates (ASR) of albumin and fibrinogen. Prior to turpentine injection, compared to control piglets, protein-deficient piglets had significantly lower muscle FSR and plasma concentrations of both albumin and fibrinogen, although only albumin had lower FSR and ASR. Turpentine injection decreased muscle FSR but increased the FSR, ASR and plasma concentrations of both albumin and fibrinogen in control piglets. In protein-deficient piglets, the inflammatory stress caused a further decrease in muscle protein FSR and in plasma albumin concentration despite marked increases in albumin FSR and ASR. Fibrinogen FSR, ASR and plasma concentration were increased. We conclude that protein undernutrition and inflammation elicit the same kinetic response in muscle protein but different kinetic responses in plasma proteins. Furthermore, whereas protein deficiency reduces the plasma albumin pool via a reduction in albumin synthesis, inflammation reduces it through a stimulation of catabolism and/or loss from the intravascular space. (+info)
Regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 gene expression after turpentine inflammation: discordant responses to IL-6.
The rat serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2 gene family includes both positive (Spi 2.2) and negative (Spi 2.1) acute phase reactants, facilitating modeling of regulation of hepatic acute phase response (APR). To examine the role of signal transducer and activation of transcription (STAT) proteins in the divergent regulation of these model genes after induction of APR, we evaluated the proximal promoters of the genes, focusing on STAT binding sites contained in these promoter elements. Induction of APR by turpentine injection includes activation of a STAT3 complex that can bind to a gamma-activated sequence (GAS) in the Spi 2.2 gene promoter, although the Spi 2.2 GAS site can bind STAT1 or STAT5 as well. To create an in vitro model of APR, primary hepatocytes were treated with combinations of cytokines and hormones to mimic the hormonal milieu of the whole animal after APR induction. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes with interleukin (IL)-6, a critical APR cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3 and a 28-fold induction of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct containing the -319 to +85 region of the Spi 2.2 promoter. This suggests the turpentine-induced increase of Spi 2.2 is mediated primarily by IL-6. In contrast, although turpentine treatment reduces Spi 2.1 mRNA in vivo and IL-6 does not increase Spi 2.1 mRNA in primary rat hepatocytes, treatment of hepatocytes with IL-6 results in a 5. 4-fold induction of Spi 2.1 promoter activity mediated through the paired GAS elements in this promoter. Differential regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 genes is due in part to differences in the promoters of these genes at the GAS sites. IL-6 alone fails to reproduce the pattern of rat Spi 2 gene expression that results from turpentine-induced inflammation. (+info)
In vivo regulation of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase during the acute phase response.
Plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) hydrolyzes PAF and oxidized phospholipids and is associated with lipoproteins in the circulation. Endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], a potent inducer of the acute phase response (APR), produces marked changes in several proteins that play important roles in lipoprotein metabolism. We now demonstrate that LPS produces a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in plasma PAF-AH activity in Syrian hamsters. The plasma PAF-AH activity is found in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction and is increased threefold with LPS treatment despite a decrease in plasma HDL levels, indicating that plasma PAF-AH activity is increased per HDL particle. LPS markedly increased PAF-AH mRNA levels in liver, spleen, lung, and small intestine. The maximal increase in plasma PAF-AH activity and mRNA expression in liver and spleen is seen 24 h after LPS treatment. Both tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 modestly increased plasma PAF-AH activity and mRNA levels in liver and spleen, suggesting that they may partly mediate the effect of LPS on PAF-AH. Surgical removal of spleen had no effect on basal or LPS-induced plasma PAF-AH activity, suggesting that spleen per se may not contribute to plasma PAF-AH activity. Finally, LPS, turpentine and zymosan increased plasma PAF-AH activity in mice and/or rats, indicating that multiple APR inducers upregulate plasma PAF-AH and this effect is consistent across different rodent species. Taken together, our results indicate that plasma PAF-AH activity and mRNA expression is markedly upregulated during the host response to infection and inflammation. An increase in plasma PAF-AH may enhance the degradation of PAF as well as alter the structure and function of HDL during infection and inflammation. (+info)
Effect of hypoxia alone or combined with inflammation and 3-methylcholanthrene on hepatic cytochrome P450 in conscious rabbits.
1 To investigate the effect of moderate hypoxia alone or combined with an inflammatory reaction or after 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) pre-treatment on cytochrome P450 (P450), conscious rabbits were exposed for 24 h to a fractional concentration of inspired O2 of 10% (mean PaO2 of 34 mmHg). Hypoxia decreased theophylline metabolic clearance (ClM) from 1.73+/-0.43 to 1.48+/-0.13 ml min-1 kg-1 (P<0. 05), and reduced (P<0.05) the formation clearance of theophylline metabolites, 3-methylxanthine (3MX), 1-methyluric acid (1MU) and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3DMU). Hypoxia reduced the amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 but increased CYP3A6 proteins. 2 Turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction reduced (P<0.05) the formation clearance of 3MX, 1MU, and 1,3DMU, and diminished the amount of CYP1A1, 1A2 and 3A6 proteins. However, when combined with hypoxia, inflammation partially prevented the decrease in ClM, especially by impeding the reduction of 1,3DMU. The amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 remained reduced but the amount of CYP3A6 protein returned to normal values. 3 Pre-treatment with 3MC augmented the ClM by 114% (P<0.05) due to the increase in the formation clearance of 3MX, 1MU and 1,3DMU. 3MC treatment increased the amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 proteins. Pre-treatment with 3MC prevented the hypoxia-induced decrease in amount and activity of the P450. 4 It is concluded that acute moderate hypoxia and an inflammatory reaction individually reduce the amount and activity of selected apoproteins of the P450. However, the combination of hypoxia and the inflammatory reaction restores P450 activity to near normal values. On the other hand, pre-treatment with 3MC prevents the hypoxia-induced depression of the P450. (+info)
21-aminosteroids prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induced by hypoxia and inflammation in conscious rabbits.
1 This study was conducted to assess whether a 21-aminosteroid, U74389G, could prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) induced by acute moderate hypoxia or an inflammatory reaction. 2 The rabbits of two groups (n = 6 per group) were subjected to acute moderate hypoxia (PaO2 approximately 35 mmHg), one pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg-1 i.v. every 6 h, for 48 h). The rabbits of two other groups received 5 ml of turpentine s.c., one of them being pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg-1 i.v. every 6 h, for 72 h). The kinetics of theophylline (2.5 mg kg-1) were assessed to evaluate the activity of the P450. Once the rabbits were sacrificed, the P450 content and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, were estimated in the liver. 3 Compared with control rabbits, hypoxia and inflammation increased theophylline plasma concentrations, as a result of a decrease in theophylline systemic clearance (P<0.05). Both experimental conditions reduced hepatic content of P450 by 40-50% (P<0.05) and increased the amount of hepatic TBARS by around 50% (P<0.05). Pre-treatment with U74389G prevented the hypoxia- and inflammation-induced decrease in theophylline systemic clearance, the down-regulation of hepatic P450, and the increase in liver TBARS. 4 It is concluded that in the rabbit, U74389G prevents hepatic P450 depression produced by acute moderate hypoxia and a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction, possibly by eliciting a radical quenching antioxidant activity. (+info)
Evidence for neurogenic transmission inducing degenerative cartilage damage distant from local inflammation.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate involvement of the nervous system in ipsilateral and contralateral joint inflammation. METHODS: Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA; 1 mg or 1 microg) was injected unilaterally and the messages (a) from the hind paw to the ipsilateral and contralateral knees and (b) from one knee to the contralateral knee were analyzed. The degenerative impact of the local injury on distant cartilage was assessed using patellar proteoglycan synthesis as an indicator. Neurogenic mechanisms were blocked either by spinal cord compression or by injection of neurokinin 1 (NK-1) antagonist, or they were mimicked by intraarticular injection of substance P. The data were compared with those gathered in a model of systemic inflammation, characterized by fever and serum interleukin-6 production. RESULTS: After unilateral subcutaneous injection of CFA, proteoglycan anabolism decreased bilaterally. Spinal cord compression and administration of the NK-1 antagonist inhibited the response in the contralateral limb. Following 1 mg CFA subcutaneous injection, the ipsilateral response implicated both neurogenic and systemic mechanisms, whereas the nervous system alone was implicated after 1 microg subcutaneous CFA injection. The 1 microg CFA intraarticular injection induced a degenerative contralateral signal, which was abolished by spinal cord compression and by pretreatment with the NK-1 antagonist. Intraarticular injection of 1 microg CFA also induced an ipsilateral increase of anabolism, which was enhanced by spinal cord compression. Similar results were obtained after intraarticular injections of substance P. These effects were not reproduced with turpentine treatment, a systemic model, in which spinal cord compression had no effect. CONCLUSION: A unilateral inflammation can induce, by neurogenic mechanisms, distal bilateral degeneration of articular cartilage, implicating involvement of neuropeptides. (+info)
IL-1beta mediates induction of hepatic type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor in response to local tissue injury.
Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), a major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activation, is an important component of the hepatic acute phase response. We studied the acute phase regulation of murine hepatic PAI-1 in response to systemic toxicity and local tissue injury in both wild-type mice and in mice in which the interleukin (IL)-1beta gene had been inactivated by gene targeting. Endotoxin induced plasma PAI-1 antigen levels and PAI-1 mRNA accumulation in liver to the same extent in both wild-type and IL-1beta-deficient mice. In contrast, turpentine increased plasma PAI-1 and hepatic PAI-1 mRNA accumulation in wild-type mice but not in IL-1beta-deficient mice. Intraperitoneal injection of murine IL-1beta rapidly increased plasma PAI-1 and hepatic PAI-1 mRNA in both wild-type and IL-1beta-deficient mice. These results suggest that IL-1beta is a critical inducer of hepatic PAI-1 gene expression during the acute phase response to local tissue injury. In situ hybridization studies revealed that hepatocytes are the cells primarily responsible for the hepatic expression of the PAI-1 gene induced by lipopolysaccharide and turpentine. (+info)
An essential role of interleukin-1beta in mediating NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 transcription in cells of the blood-brain barrier in response to a systemic and localized inflammation but not during endotoxemia.
When released into the bloodstream, proinflammatory cytokines have the ability to trigger the transcription of different genes in cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including members of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) family and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the limiting enzyme for the formation of prostaglandins (PGs). The present study investigated the possibility that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) plays an essential role in these events during a systemic inflammatory response. Both wild-type and IL-1beta-deficient mice were killed at different times after two different immunogenic stimuli, i.e., intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection and intramuscular turpentine injection, used here as a model of systemic localized inflammatory insult. The inhibitory factor kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha, index of NF-kappaB activity) and COX-2 transcripts were detected throughout the brain by means of in situ hybridization. Systemic LPS injection caused a strong and rapid expression of IkappaBalpha in endothelial cells lining the BBB of large and small blood vessels and thereafter within parenchymal microglia across the brain. This treatment also provoked a transient expression of COX-2 along cells of the vascular system, and the expression pattern and intensity of the signal for both transcripts were essentially the same in wild-type and IL-1beta-deficient animals. In contrast, the induction of these genes that was quite selective to the cells of the BBB in response to intramuscularly turpentine insult was completely abolished in IL-1beta-deficient mice. Indeed, a late and prolonged expression of IkappaBalpha and COX-2 mRNAs was found along the cerebral blood vessels in response to the sterile and localized inflammation in wild-type mice, whereas such induction was absent in the brain of IL-1beta-deficient animals. These results indicate that IL-1beta has an obligatory role in the activation of NF-kappaB molecules and PGs within endothelial cells of the BBB in an experimental model of intramuscularly turpentine-induced inflammation but not during endotoxemia. (+info)