(1/445) Turner's syndrome and pregnancies after oocyte donation.
A total of 20 clinical pregnancies was achieved among 18 women with Turner's syndrome who were treated in an oocyte donation programme. The oocytes were donated by voluntary unpaid donors. A mean of 1.8 embryos per transfer was given to each recipient by way of 28 fresh and 25 frozen embryo transfers. With fresh and frozen embryos, 13 and seven pregnancies respectively were achieved. The clinical pregnancy rate per fresh embryo transfer was 46%, and the implantation rate 30%, being similar to the corresponding rates among our oocyte recipients with primary ovarian failure in general. The corresponding rates with frozen embryos were 28 and 19%. Of these pregnancies, 40% ended in miscarriage. This high rate may be explained by uterine factors. Six women were hypertensive during pregnancy, a rate comparable with that in other oocyte donation pregnancies. All these women delivered by Caesarean section. Pregnancy and implantation rates after oocyte donation were high in women with Turner's syndrome, but the risk of cardiovascular and other complications is high. Careful assessment before and during follow-up of pregnancy are important. Transfer of only one embryo at a time to avoid the additional complications caused by twin pregnancy is recommended. (+info)
(2/445) Dicentric X isochromosomes in man.
Four cases of Turner's syndrome are presented in which an apparent X isochromosome i(Xq) has been found to possess two regions of centromeric heterochromatin. It is suggested that these chromosomes were isodicentric structures capable of functioning as monocentric elements as a result of the inactivation of one centromere. The prevalence of mosaicism is believed to be a consequence of the dicentric nature of these chromosomes, and it is considered possible that a high proportion of X isochromosmes are structurally dicentric. Banding patterns showed that the exchange site involved in the formation of the dicentric chromosome was different in at least three of the cases. (+info)
(3/445) Triple X female and Turner's syndrome offspring.
A mentally retarded young female having 47 chromosomes with a triple X karotype produced a child with Turner's syndrome associated with mental defeciency. To our knowledge this is the first example of a triple X female giving birth to a child with Turner's syndrome. (+info)
(4/445) Pelvic ultrasonography in Turner syndrome: standards for uterine and ovarian volume.
The purpose of this study was to investigate uterine and ovarian size according to age and pubertal stage in patients with Turner syndrome. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterus and the ovaries was performed in 93 patients with Turner syndrome, aged 12 days to 17.85 years. The data were compared with those of 190 healthy controls. One or both ovaries were detected in 41 of 93 patients (44%). Within the prepubertal group, mean uterine volume and mean ovarian volume of the patients with Turner syndrome were significantly (P<0.001) lower than those of controls (0.5+/-0.2 ml versus 1.0+/-0.3 ml; 0.3+/-0.3 ml versus 0.6+/-0.4 ml, respectively). In prepubertal girls, no significant relationship was found between age and uterine size or ovarian size. Both uterine volume and ovarian volume of 19 women with spontaneous puberty increased during breast development, although mean uterine volume and mean ovarian volume were significantly (P<0.01) lower than those of pubertal control patients. (+info)
(5/445) Lymphatic vessel hypoplasia in fetuses with Turner syndrome.
Turner syndrome is associated with subcutaneous accumulation of fluid in the neck region that can be visualized sonographically from 10-14 weeks of gestation as massively increased nuchal translucency thickness. Possible mechanisms for this increased translucency include dilatation of the jugular lymphatic sacs because of developmental delay in the connection with the venous system, or a primary abnormal dilatation or proliferation of the lymphatic channels interfering with a normal flow between the lymphatic and venous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lymphatic vessels in nuchal skin tissue from fetuses with Turner syndrome compared with fetuses carrying trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and chromosomally normal controls. The distribution of vessels was examined by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody, PTN63, against 5' nucleotidase and an anti-laminin antibody. In normal control fetuses (n = 6) and those with trisomies 21 (n = 3), 18 (n = 2) and 13 (n = 2), PTN63-positive and laminin-positive vessels were evenly distributed throughout the dermis and subcutis. In Turner syndrome (n = 3), there was a chain of large vessels that stained with both PTN63 and laminin at the border between dermis and subcutis, but there was scarcity of vessels in the upper dermis and the subcutis. Using PTN63 alone, there were no positive vessels in the upper dermis. We conclude that in Turner syndrome lymphatic vessels in the upper dermis are hypoplastic. (+info)
(6/445) A molecular and FISH analysis of structurally abnormal Y chromosomes in patients with Turner syndrome.
Fourteen patients with Turner syndrome and a structurally abnormal Y chromosome were analysed by PCR amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridisation for the presence of sequences specific to defined regions of the Y chromosome. Thirteen patients had a mosaic karyotype including a 45,X cell line and one case was non-mosaic in cultured lymphocytes. Ten patients had a pseudodicentric Yp chromosome, two an isodicentric Yq, one a pseudodicentric Yq, and one a derived Y chromosome. Two of the patients with a psu dic(Yp) chromosome had complex karyotypes with more than two cell lines, one of which exhibited five morphologically distinct mar(Y) chromosomes, presumably derived from a progenitor psu dic(Yp). Nine of the ten psu dic(Yp) chromosomes were positive for all Yp and Yq probes used except DYZ1 which maps to Yq12, suggesting a common breakpoint near the Yq euchromatin/heterochromatin boundary. In the three patients with a dicentric Yq chromosome two different breakpoints were observed; in two it was between PABY and the subtelomeric repeat sequence and in one it was between DYZ5 and AMGY in proximal Yp. Our results suggest that the great majority of structurally abnormal Y chromosomes found in Turner syndrome mosaics contain two copies of virtually all of the functional Y chromosome euchromatin. (+info)
(7/445) A decade of growth hormone treatment in girls with Turner syndrome in the UK. UK KIGS Executive Group.
Fifteen per cent of children treated with growth hormone (GH) are receiving treatment for Turner syndrome, but few results are available on final height in the UK. In this study, data were obtained from the UK KIGS database for 485 girls with Turner syndrome who were treated from 1986, allowing an audit of practice and outcome over 10 years. Over the decade, the mean age of starting growth hormone treatment fell from 10.4 to 8.5 years and the starting dose increased from 0.55 to 0.95 IU/kg/week. The frequency of injections increased from three to six or seven/week. Some girls received suboptimal doses, which also differed depending on whether they were based on weight or surface area. To assess what height gain might be expected at final height, all 52 girls who were prepubertal at the start of treatment, which continued for four years or more, and who had reached final height or had a growth velocity < 2 cm/year were selected. Their mean gain in final height was 5.2 cm and the GH dose was 0.78 IU/kg/week over 5.8 years. Final height gain correlated significantly with duration of treatment, total dose received, and first year response, which itself related to starting dose. This audit shows a changing pattern of treatment over the past decade, which in many instances has been inadequate. When treatment starts before puberty and continues through to final height, with a dose of 30 IU/m2/week in six or seven injections, a mean increase in final height of 5 cm or more would be expected. (+info)
(8/445) Final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily growth hormone injections. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone.
OBJECTIVES: To study final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily injections of growth hormone (GH) in combination with low dose ethinyl oestradiol. DESIGN: Until final height was reached, the effect of fractionated subcutaneous injections given twice daily was compared with once daily injections of a total GH dose of 6 IU/m2/day. Twice daily injections were given as one third in the morning and two thirds at bedtime. All girls concurrently received low dose oestradiol (0.05 microgram ethinyl oestradiol/kg/day, increased to 0.10 microgram/kg/day after 2.25 years). PATIENTS: Nineteen girls with Turner's syndrome aged > or = 11 years (mean (SD) 13.6 (1.7) years). MEASUREMENTS: To determine final height gain, we assessed the difference between the attained final height and the final height predictions at the start of treatment. These final height predictions were calculated using the Bayley-Pinneau (BP) prediction method, the modified projected adult height (mPAH), the modified index of potential height (mIPHRUS), and the Turner's specific prediction method (PTSRUS). RESULTS: The gain in final height (mean (SD)) was not significantly different between the once daily and the twice daily regimens (7.6 (2.3) v 5.1 (3.2) cm). All girls exceeded their adult height prediction (range, 1.6-12.3 cm). Thirteen of the 19 girls had a final height gain > 5.0 cm. Mean (SD) attained final height was 155.5 (5.4) cm. A "younger bone age" at baseline and a higher increase in height standard deviation score for chronological age (Dutch-Swedish-Danish references) in the first year of GH treatment predicted a higher final height gain after GH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Division of the total daily GH dose (6 IU/m2/day) into two thirds in the evening and one third in the morning is not advantageous over the once daily GH regimen with respect to final height gain. Treatment with a GH dose of 6 IU/m2/day in combination with low dose oestrogens can result in a significant increase in adult height in girls with Turner's syndrome, even if they start GH treatment at a relatively late age. (+info)